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Thread: Toxicity to fish of cyanides and related compounds

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    Default Toxicity to fish of cyanides and related compounds

    Peter Doudoroff
    TOXICITY TO FISH OF CYANIDES AND RELATED COMPOUNDS

    A Review


    U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
    OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
    ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY
    DULUTH, MINNESOTA 55804

    EPA-600/3-76-038
    April 1976

    Abstract (OCR┤ed!):

    The world literature on the toxicity to fish of simple and complex
    cyanides, nitriles, cyanogen chloride, thiocyanates, and cyanates is
    reviewed critically and interpretively. Differently determined limits
    of toxicant concentrations tolerated by various fishes are compared, and
    their variation with exposure time, the pH, temperature, and dissolved
    oxygen and mineral content of the water, body size, age, acclimation,
    etc., is examined. Interactions of free cyanide with other toxic water
    pollutants also are considered. Available data on effects of sublethal
    levels of free cyanide on growth, food consumption and utilization,
    swimming ability, behavior, etc., and observations on avoidance reactions
    of fish to the toxicant are summarized and their ecological significance
    is discussed. After a brief introduction to the chemistry
    of complex metallocyanides and their behavior in dilute solutions, the
    acute toxicity of the solutions is thoroughly considered and related to
    concentrations of their identifiable components. The dominant role of
    molecular hydrocyanic acid produced by dissociation or photolysis of the
    metallocyanide complexes as a lethal agent responsible for the toxicity
    of most of the toxic solutions tested is given particular attention; the
    relative toxicity of complex metallocyanide ions also is considered.
    Some conclusions regarding acceptable concentrations of free cyanide in
    receiving waters are presented.
    This report was submitted in fulfillment of Grant Number R-802459 by
    Oregon State University under the (partial) sponsorship of the Environmental
    Protection Agency. Work was completed as of September 1975.

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    Last edited by Vetaqua; 7th June 2011 at 03:03 AM.
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