Identification Guide of Freshwater Macroinvertebrates of Spain
by: Javier Oscoz, David Galicia, Rafael Miranda




As a result of the European Commission’s concern for the status of continental waters, and as a clear reflection of the notion of water as heritage to be conserved, in the year 2000 the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/CE) was enacted, its goal being to establish a framework to protect water and the different aquatic ecosystems by requiring the Member States to achieve a good ecological status in all their waters by 2015. Like all ecosystems, freshwater ecosystems undergo physical, chemical and energy-related changes, both of natural and anthropogenic origin. These disturbances affect the organisms living in them and those who utilize their resources. Therefore, evaluating these changes has become a very important task in order to better understand aquatic systems. The study and analysis of the ecological status of these ecosystems in relation to their conservation status and water quality is thus a fundamental tool for a more efficient and rational management of their resources, that is, a management that does not threaten the ecosystem. The present guide for the identification of Spanish freshwater macroinvertebrates aims to facilitate the job of those who go to great lengths to identify them in order to then determine biotic indices. It is not the aim of this book to serve as a zoological treaty, nor does it claim to add new information on the biology or the ecology of the taxa covered. This book is, simply, a working tool explicitly designed to facilitate the identification of the Spanish macroinvertebrates and the subsequent computing of biotic indices.
Cover

Identification Guide of Freshwater Macroinvertebrates of Spain

ISBN 9789400715530

Preface

Contents

Authors of Taxa Descriptions (in AlphabeticalOrder, Taxa in Brackets)

1: Why, Where and How: An Identification Guide of Macroinvertebrates

Introduction

Methods and Materials

Description of the Study Area

Study Area and Macroinvertebrate Taxa Considered

Reference Collection

Image Capture and Processing

References

2: Identification Keys

Key 1 Major Groups

Key 2 Hirudinea

Key 3 Turbellaria

Key 4 Mollusca

Key 5 Crustacea

Key 6 Hexapoda (General)

Key 7 Coleoptera

Key to Adult Specimens

Key to Larvae

Key 8 Plecoptera

Key 9 Ephemeroptera

Key 10 Neuroptera (Planipennia)

Key 11 Odonata

Key 12 Hemiptera

Key 13 Diptera

Key 14 Trichoptera

References

3: Taxa Description and Biology

Spongillidae

Description

Biology

Hydridae

Description

Biology

Planariidae

Description

Biology

Dugesiidae

Description

Biology

Dendrocoelidae

Description

Biology

Nematoda

Description

Biology

Nematomorpha

Description

Biology

Bryozoa

Description

Biology

Oligochaeta

Description

Biology

Glossiphoniidae

Description

Biology

Piscicolidae

Description

Biology

Hirudinidae

Description

Biology

Haemopidae

Description

Biology

Erpobdellidae

Description

Biology

Branchiobdellidae

Description

Biology

Viviparidae

Description

Biology

Neritidae

Description

Biology

Valvatidae

Description

Biology

Bithyniidae

Description

Biology

Hydrobiidae

Description

Biology

Melanopsidae

Description

Biology

Acroloxidae

Description

Biology

Planorbidae , Ancylidae and Ferrissidae

Description

Biology

Lymnaeidae

Description

Biology

Physidae

Description

Biology

Margaritiferidae – Unionidae

Description

Biology

Dreissenidae

Description

Biology

Sphaeriidae

Description

Biology

Corbiculidae

Description

Biology

Branchiopoda

Description

Biology

Gammaridae

Description

Biology

Niphargidae

Description

Biology

Corophiidae

Description

Biology

Asellidae

Description

Biology

Atyidae

Description

Biology

Astacidae

Description

Biology

Cambaridae

Description

Biology

Palaemonidae

Description

Biology

Parastacidae

Description

Biology

Copepoda

Description

Biology

Ostracoda

Description

Biology

Hydrachnidia (Hydracarina)

Description

Biology

Collembola

Description

Biology

Baetidae

Description

Biology

Caenidae

Description

Biology

Ephemerellidae

Description

Biology

Ephemeridae

Description

Biology

Heptageniidae

Description

Biology

Leptophlebiidae

Description

Biology

Oligoneuriidae

Description

Biology

Polymitarcyidae

Description

Biology

Potamanthidae

Description

Biology

Prosopistomatidae

Description

Biology

Siphlonuridae

Description

Biology

Capniidae

Description

Biology

Chloroperlidae

Description

Biology

Leuctridae

Description

Biology

Nemouridae

Description

Biology

Perlidae

Description

Biology

Perlodidae

Description

Biology

Taeniopterygidae

Description

Biology

Aeshnidae

Description

Biology

Cordulegastridae

Description

Biology

Corduliidae

Description

Biology

Gomphidae

Description

Biology

Libellulidae

Description

Biology

Calopterygidae

Description

Biology

Coenagrionidae

Description

Biology

Lestidae

Description

Biology

Platycnemididae

Description

Biology

Aphelocheiridae

Description

Biology

Corixidae

Description

Biology

Naucoridae

Description

Biology

Nepidae

Description

Biology

Notonectidae

Description

Biology

Pleidae

Description

Biology

Gerridae

Description

Biology

Hebridae

Description

Biology

Hydrometridae

Description

Biology

Mesoveliidae

Description

Biology

Veliidae

Description

Biology

Sialidae

Description

Biology

Osmylidae

Description

Biology

Sisyridae

Description

Biology

Pyralidae

Description

Biology

Ichneumonidae

Description

Biology

Chrysomelidae

Description

Biology

Curculionidae

Description

Biology

Dytiscidae

Description

Biology

Elmidae

Description

Biology

Gyrinidae

Description

Biology

Haliplidae

Description

Biology

Hydraenidae

Description

Biology

Hydrochidae

Description

Biology

Hydrophilidae

Description

Biology

Hydroscaphidae

Description

Biology

Hygrobiidae = Paelobiidae

Description

Biology

Noteridae

Description

Biology

Psephenidae

Description

Biology

Scirtidae

Description

Biology

Beraeidae

Description

Biology

Brachycentridae

Description

Biology

Calamoceratidae

Description

Biology

Ecnomidae

Description

Biology

Glossosomatidae

Description

Biology

Goeridae

Description

Biology

Helicopsychidae

Description

Biology

Hydropsychidae

Description

Biology

Hydroptilidae

Description

Biology

Lepidostomatidae

Description

Biology

Leptoceridae

Description

Biology

Limnephilidae

Description

Biology

Apataniidae

Description

Biology

Odontoceridae

Description

Biology

Philopotamidae

Description

Biology

Phryganeidae

Description

Biology

Polycentropodidae

Description

Biology

Psychomyiidae

Description

Biology

Rhyacophilidae

Description

Biology

Sericostomatidae

Description

Biology

Uenoidae

Description

Biology

Muscidae

Description

Biology

Anthomyiidae

Description

Biology

Athericidae

Description

Biology

Dolichopodidae

Description

Biology

Empididae

Description

Biology

Ephydridae

Description

Biology

Rhagionidae

Description

Biology

Scathophagidae

Description

Biology

Sciomyzidae

Description

Biology

Stratiomyidae

Description

Biology

Syrphidae

Description

Biology

Tabanidae

Description

Biology

Blephariceridae

Description

Biology

Ceratopogonidae

Description

Biology

Chironomidae

Description

Biology

Simuliidae

Description

Biology

Thaumaleidae

Description

Biology

Chaoboridae

Description

Biology

Culicidae

Description

Biology

Dixidae

Description

Biology

Psychodidae

Description

Biology

Ptychopteridae

Description

Biology

Limoniidae

Description

Biology

Pediciidae

Description

Biology

Tipulidae

Description

Biology

References

Taxonomic Index
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