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    Default Venomous Snakes:Envenoming,Therapy (Reptiles -Classification, Evolution and Systems)

    Venomous Snakes: Envenoming, Therapy (Reptiles - Classification, Evolution and Systems)
    by Jiri Valenta



    Pages: 340
    Publisher: --
    1 edition (September 30, 2010)
    Language:
    English
    ISBN-10:
    1608766187
    ISBN-13:
    978-1608766185

    Description

    This is a comprehensive monograph on the problems of intoxication incurred by snake venom. This publication is primarily intended for those at all levels of health care, for members of rescue teams, surgeries and emergency hospitals, as well as specialised workplaces and intensive care units. Providing didactic instructions for first aid and treatment procedures, information is also presented on venomous snakes, the fundaments of their morphology and behaviour, snakebite prevention, the composition of snake venom, symptoms of envenoming, plus first aid in the event of snakebite for non-professionals, travellers, terrain biologists, and breeders. This book features an updated alphabetical list of types and sub-types of all venomous snakes, including their home ranges, as well as a comprehensive index, list of abbreviations, glossary, and colour picture insert with one hundred photographs of venomous snakes.

    Table of Contents:

    Preface

    1 Zoological basis, pp. 1-16
    1.1 Evolution and phylogeny of snakes
    1.2 Taxonomy of snakes
    1.3 Morphology of snakes
    1.4 The venom apparatus in snakes
    1.5 Distribution of venomous snakes
    1.6 Ethology basis, hunting, attacks and defense
    (5) Bibliography

    2 Epidemiology of snakebites, pp. 17-27
    2.1 Epidemiological notes
    2.2 Europe
    2.3 The Middle East
    2.4 Africa
    2.5 Asia
    2.6 North America
    2.7 Central and South America
    2.8 Australia and Oceania
    2.9 Global figures
    (5) Bibliography

    3 Snake venoms, pp. 27-49
    3.1 Snake venoms - physical traits and composition
    3.2 Effectiveness of snake venoms
    3.3 Classification of snake venoms and their effects
    3.3.1 Classification by type, site, and severity of envenomation
    3.3.2 Classification by systemic effect and symptoms of envenomation
    3.3.2.1 Venom components with localized effects
    3.3.2.2 Venom components with neurotoxic activities
    (5) Presynaptic neurotoxins
    (5) Postsynaptic neurotoxins
    3.3.2.3 Venom components with effects on the cardiovascular apparatus
    3.3.2.4 Venom components with effects on the vessel wall
    3.3.2.5. Venom components with effects on hemocoagulation
    (5) Venom components with effects on platelets
    (5) Venom components with effects on the contact path of hemocoagulation activation
    (5) Venom components activating prothrombin
    (5) Venom components converting fibrinogen to fibrin
    (5) Venom components degrading fibrinogen and fibrin
    (5) Venom components inactivating antithrombin and other serpins
    (5) C protein activating venom components
    (5) Venom components affecting endothelium and the vessel wall
    3.3.2.6 Venom components affecting the complement
    3.3.2.7 Venom components possessing a myotoxic activity
    3.3.2.8 Venom components affecting the kidneys
    3.3.2.9 Allergenizing venom components
    3.3.2.10 Venom components with various activities and non-protein components
    (5) Bibliography

    4. 4 Snake antivenoms, pp. 51-57
    4.1 History
    4.2 Immunogenicity of snake venoms
    4.3 Production, composition and types of antivenoms
    4.4 Antivenom efficiency
    4.5 Side-effects of antivenoms
    (5) Early anaphylactic reactions
    (5) Late anaphylactic reaction - a serum sickness
    (5) Bibliography

    5. 5 Snakebite: Therapy and prevention, pp. 59-84
    5.1. Prevention
    5.2 First aid
    5.2.1 First aid for laypersons
    5.2.2. Medicinal first aid
    5.3 Hospital treatment
    5.3.1 Specific treatment - immunotherapy
    5.3.1.1 Indications of antivenom administration
    5.3.1.2 Contraindication of antivenom administration
    5.3.1.3 Dosage and method of antivenom administration
    5.3.2 Prevention and treatment of serum anaphylactic reactions
    5.3.3 Clinical symptoms of envenomation and symptomatic treatment
    5.3.3.1 Local damage
    5.3.3.2 Absence of symptoms, envenomation prodromes
    5.3.3.3 Affection of nerve tissue and neuromuscular connections
    5.3.3.4 Rhythm and heart output disorders
    5.3.3.5 Hypotension and shock
    5.3.3.6 Hemocoagulation disorders
    5.3.3.7 Affection of muscles
    5.3.3.8. Renal failure
    5.3.4 Plasmaferesis therapy
    5.4 Convalescence following envenoming
    (5) Bibliography

    Special section

    6 Envenoming and snakebite treatment in specific snake groups, pp. 85-233

    6.1 Family: Colubridae, colubrids
    6.1.1 Rhabdophis genus
    6.1.2 Boiga genus
    6.1.3 Dispholidus genus
    6.1.4 Malpolon genus
    6.1.5 Thelotornis genus
    6.1.6 Some other genera of venomous colubrid snakes
    (5) Bibliography

    6.2 Family: Atractaspididae
    6.2.1 Subfamily: Atractaspidinae
    6.2.1.1 Atractaspis genus
    6.2.2 Subfamily: Aparallactinae
    (5) Bibliography

    6.3 Family: Elapidae, elapid snakes
    6.3.1 Subfamily: Elapinae
    6.3.1.1 Aspidelaps genus, shield nosed cobras
    6.3.1.2 Bungarus genus, kraits
    6.3.1.3 Calliophis, Hemibungarus, and Maticora genera, Asian coral snakes
    6.3.1.4 Dendroaspis genus, mambas
    6.3.1.5 Naja genus, cobras
    6.3.1.6 Ophiophagus genus
    6.3.1.7 Other genera of African and Asian elapid snakes of the former Bungarinae subfamily
    6.3.1.8 Micrurus genus, coral snakes
    6.3.1.9 Leptomicrurus and Micruroides genera
    (5) Bibliography
    6.3.2 Subfamily: Hydrophiinae
    6.3.2.1 Terrestrial Austropapuan elapids (formerly: Oxyuraninae subfamily)
    (5) Acanthophis genus, death adders
    (5) Austrelaps genus, Australian copperheads
    (5) Hoplocephalus genus
    (5) Notechis genus, tiger snakes
    (5) Oxyuranus genus, taipan
    (5) Pseudechis genus, black snakes
    (5) Pseudonaja genus, brown snakes
    (5) Tropidechis genus
    (5) Other species of Austropapuan terrestrial coral snakes (a former Oxyuraninae subfamily)
    (5) Bibliography
    6.3.2.2 Aquatic genera of the Hydrophiinae subfamily (a former Hydrophiidae family)
    (5) Bibliography

    6.4. Family: Viperidae, viperids
    6.4.1 Subfamily: Azemiopinae
    6.4.2 Subfamily: Viperinae
    6.4.2.1 Adenorhinos and Atheris genera
    6.4.2.2 Bitis genus, puff adders
    6.4.2.3 Causus genus, night adders
    6.4.2.4 Cerastes genus, desert horned vipers
    6.4.2.5 Daboia genus
    6.4.2.6 Echis genus, saw-scaled vipers
    6.4.2.7 Eristicophis and Pseudocerastes genera
    6.4.2.8 Macrovipera genus, large Palearctic vipers
    6.4.2.9 Vipera genus, Palaearctic or Eurasian vipers
    6.4.2.9.1 Vipera ammodytes, the nose-horned viper
    6.4.2.9.2 Vipera berus, the common viper
    6.4.2.9.3 Vipera aspis, the asp viper
    6.4.2.9.4 Vipera palestinae, the Palestinian viper
    6.4.2.9.5 Vipera xanthina, the rock viper. Vipera raddei, the Armenian mountain viper
    (5) Bibliography
    6.4.3. 6.4.3 Subfamily: Crotalinae
    6.4.3.1 Agkistrodon, Calloselasma, Deinagkistrodonon, Gloydius, and Hypnale genera
    6.4.3.2 Atropoides, Bothriechis, Bothriopsis, Bothrocophias, Bothrops, Cerrophidion, Lachesis, Ophryacus, and Porthidium genera
    6.4.3.3 Crotalus and Sistrurus genera: rattlesnakes and ground rattlesnakes
    6.4.3.4 Ovophis - mountain pit vipers, Protobothrops and Trimeresurus - Asian pit vipers, and Tropidolaemus - temple vipers
    (5) Bibliography

    7 List of venomous snakes, pp. 235-288
    7.1 Family: Colubridae, colubrids
    7.2 Family: Atractaspididae
    7.2.1 Subfamily: Atractaspidinae
    7.2.2 Subfamily: Aparallactinae
    7.3 Family: Elapidae, elapid snakes
    7.3.1 Subfamily: Elapinae
    7.3.2 Subfamily: Hydrophiinae
    7.3.2.1 Terrestrial species (formerly: Oxyuraninae subfamily)
    7.3.2.2 Aquatic species: true sea snakes and sea kraits (formerly: Hydrophiidae family, Hydrophiinae and Laticaudinae subfamilies)
    7.4. Family: Viperidae, viperids
    7.4.1 Subfamily: Azemiopinae
    7.4.2 Subfamily: Viperinae
    7.4.3 Subfamily: Crotalinae
    (5) Bibliography

    8 List of abbreviations
    9 Glossary
    Index
    Last edited by Motoko; 10th August 2013 at 05:46 PM. Reason: UPDATE TEMPLATE.
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    Default Re: Venomous Snakes:Envenoming,Therapy (Reptiles -Classification, Evolution and Systems)

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