Protein Sources in Ruminant Nutrition
by Monica I. Cutrignelli, Serena Calabṛ, Raffaella Tudisco, Federico Infascelli and Vincenzo Piccolo
Source: Recent Trends for Enhancing the Diversity and Quality of Soybean Products
Edited by: Dora Krezhova
Publisher: InTech, October 2011
Since 2001 the European Commission banned the use of meat and bone meal and its byproducts in diets for livestock animals (EC directive 999/2001) in order to assure consumer safety on animal products. Consequently, soybean meal became the most utilised protein
source in the intensive livestock systems.
Moreover, the proteins of this source are low degradable in the rumen and well proportioned to the non structural carbohydrates (NSC).
Soybean meal solvent extract (s.e.) is a by-product of oil industry, where soybean seeds are treated with organic solvents (e.g. hexane) and subsequently with high temperature. For this reason soybean meal has been banned in the organic livestock (EC directive 2092/1991; EC