Book Title: Urinary Tract Stone Disease
Chapter Title: Stone Disease in Animals
Authors: Doreen M. Houston, Andrew Moore, Denise A. Elliott and Vincent C. Biourge
Uroliths have been reported in most animals, but their pathophysiology and management have been studied most in dogs and cats. In both species, urinary stones are responsible for 15–20% of cases of lower urinary tract disease. Despite common belief, stones are more frequent in dogs – especially small dogs – than in cats. Upper urinary tract stones are less common in dogs and cats than in humans. Dietary management has been definitively shown to modulate the occurrence of struvite and purine stones in both dogs and cats. The pathophysiology of calcium oxalate stones is likely to be multifactorial, and the exact roles of diet and urinary pH remain to be investigated. Pending this work, promotion of diuresis and urine dilution by feeding a moist and/or higher sodium diet could be beneficial in both dogs and cats. Prevalence of other stone types is very low in both dogs and cats and their treatment is a combination of surgical, dietary, and medical management.