NOTICE Notice: This is an old thread. The last post was 1873 days ago. If your post is not directly related to this discussion please consider making a new thread.
Results 1 to 2 of 2

Thread: Cellular Effects of Heavy Metals

  1. #1
    rocky's Avatar
    Silver Member

    Status
    Offline
    Join Date
    Apr 2011
    Work
    Veterinary Resident
    Country
    Iran
    Gender
    Male
    Total Posts
    103
    Rep Power
    623
    Total thanks received
    5,191
    Thanks for this post
    56
    Veterinary Resident I'm from Iran

    Default Cellular Effects of Heavy Metals

    Cellular Effects of Heavy Metals
    by: Gaspar Banfalvi




    size: 18.94 MB [ 19863469 bytes ]
    type: .pdf

    year: 2011
    pages: 364
    bookmarked: yes
    paginated: yes
    vector: yes
    cover: yes
    searchable: yes
    doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-0428-2
    googlebookid: 7NLdjDRPGGcC

    The term “heavy metals” is used as a group name of toxic metals and metalloids (semimetals) causing contaminations and ecotoxicity. In strict chemical sense the density of heavy metals is higher than 5 g/cm3. From biological point of view as microelements they can be divided into two major groups. a. For their physiological function organisms and cells require essential microelements such as iron, chromium (III), cobalt, copper, manganese, molidenium, zinc. b. The other group of heavy metals is toxic to the health or environment. Of highest concern are the emissions of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Tl. The toxicity of heavy metals is well known at organizational level, while less attention has been paid to their cellular effects. This book describes the toxicity of heavy metals on microorganisms, yeast, plant and animal cells. Other chapters of the book deal with their genotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. The toxicity of several metals touch upon the aspects of environmental hazard, ecosystems and human health. Among the cellular responses of heavy metals irregularities in cellular mechanisms such as gene expression, protein folding, stress signaling pathways are among the most important ones. The final chapters deal with biosensors and removal of heavy metals. As everybody is eating, drinking and exposed to heavy metals on a daily basis, the spirit of the book will attract a wide audience.


    Contents

    Contributors

    Abbreviations

    Part I: Introduction

    1 Heavy Metals, Trace Elements and Their Cellular Effects

    Introduction

    Why Another Book on Heavy Metals?

    Brief Review of Chapters

    Definition of Heavy Metals

    Trace Metal Elements

    Cellular Effects of Heavy Metals

    Non-essential Harmful Heavy Metals

    Cellular Toxicity of Heavy Metals

    Detoxification of Heavy Metals

    Detection of Cellular Toxicity of Heavy Metals

    Replacing In Vivo Animal Studies with In Vitro Systems

    Bacterial, Fungal and Mammalian In Vitro Systems

    Mammalian Cell Cultures

    Permeability Changes Caused by Heavy Metals

    Oxidative Damages Caused by Heavy Metals

    Lipid Peroxidation

    Oxidative DNA Damage

    Estimation of Toxic Effects of Heavy Metals

    Tumorigenic Potential of Heavy Metals

    Metabolic Parameters

    Cytoskeletal and Nucleoskelatal Changes

    Chromosomal and Chromatin Changes Induced by Heavy Metals

    Detection of Apoptotic and Necrogenic Chromatin Changes

    Detection and Determination of Heavy Metals in Cells

    Spectroscopy, Spectrometry

    Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry

    Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES)

    X-ray Fluorescence

    Backscatter Electron (BSE) Imaging and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy

    Amperometric Detection of Unithiol Complexes of Heavy Metals

    Isotope Techniques

    Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometric Method (IDMS)

    Tritium-Labelled Chelates

    Whole-Cell-Sensing Systems

    Protein Based Bisosensors

    Construction of Metal Detection Circuits in E. coli

    Luminescence-Based Whole-Cell-Sensing Systems using Genetically Engineered Bacteria

    Whole-Cell Heavy Metal Detecting Yeast System using Cadmium-Inducible Gene Promoter

    Heavy Metal Toxicity Detected by Cardiac Cell-Based Biosensor

    Antibody-Based Sensors for Heavy Metal Ions

    Porphyrin Test

    Disposable Cuvette Test for the Enzymatic Determination of Heavy Metals

    References

    Part II: Heavy Metal Toxicity in Microbes

    2 Toxic Metal/Metalloid Tolerance in Fungi—A Biotechnology- Oriented Approach

    Introduction

    First Line of Defense: Extracellular Chelation and Binding to Cell Wall Constituents

    Second Line of Defense: Transport, Intracellular Chelation and Compartmentalization

    Third Line of Defense: The Antioxidative Defense System

    Screening for Future Targets to Engineer Heavy Metal Tolerant Fungi

    References

    3 Interference of Chromium with Cellular Functions

    Introduction

    Chromium and Environment

    Extracellular Reduction of Chromate

    Metal Ion Uptake by Yeasts and Fungi

    Biosorption of Chromium

    Bioaccumulation of Chromium

    Cellular Interactions of Chromium

    Interactions of Chromium with Plasma Membrane

    ROS Formation During Intracellular Cr(VI) Metabolism

    Mechanisms of Chromium Sensitivity and Resistance

    Interactions of Chromium with Biomolecules

    Mechanism of Chromium Toxicity

    Risk Assessment in Human Exposure to Cr(VI)

    Inhalation

    Dermal Absorption

    Oral Intake

    Kinetics and Metabolism

    Excretion

    Nutritional Practices and Assessment of Risk Involved in Human Exposure to Chromium(III)

    Prevention and Repair of Chromium-Induced Damage

    Conclusions

    References

    4 Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a Model Organism for Elucidating Arsenic Tolerance Mechanisms

    Introduction

    Impact of Arsenic on Yeast Cells

    Arsenic Uptake Routes in Yeast

    Arsenate Uptake

    Arsenite Uptake

    Arsenic Detoxification Systems in Yeast

    ACR Gene Cluster—A Major Determinant of Arsenic Tolerance in Yeast

    As(III)-responsive Transcription Factor Yap8p/Acr1p

    Arsenate Reductase Acr2p

    Arsenite Permease Acr3p

    Role of Fps1p in As(III) Efflux

    Vacuolar Sequestration of Metalloids

    Glutathione Biosynthesis and the Role of Met4p

    Oxidative Stress Defence and Yap1p

    Hog1p and Cell Cycle Regulation in Response to As(III) Exposure

    Other Detoxification and Tolerance Systems

    Global Analysis of Tolerance Factors in Yeast

    Proteasomal Degradation of Damaged Proteins

    TOR- and PKA-Pathway: Regulation of General Stress Responses and Ribosomal Proteins

    Yeast as a Model System for Elucidating the Molecular Biology of Arsenic Toxicity and Tolerance

    Aquaporins, Metalloid Transport and Human Health

    ACR-Proteins in Plants

    Conclusions

    References

    Part III: Heavy Metal Induced Toxicity in Insect Cells

    5 Heavy Metal Toxicity in an Insect Cell Line (Methyl-HgCl, HgCl2, CdCl2 and CuSO4)

    Introduction

    Materials

    Cell Culture

    Metal Exposure

    Viability and Proliferation Assays

    Light and Electron Microscopy

    Atomic Absorption and Fluorescence Spectrometry

    Biochemical Assays

    Methods

    Viability Assays

    Growth Assays

    Light Microscopy and Cytoskeleton Staining

    Electron Microscopy

    Autometallography

    Atomic Absorption and Fluorescence Spectrometry

    Biochemical Assays

    Results and Discussion

    Viability Tests

    Proliferation Assays

    General Cell Morphology (Light Microscopy)

    Ultrastructural Effects (Electron Microscopy)

    Metal Uptake

    Mitochondrial Impairment and Anaerobic Metabolism in Cd-Treated Cells

    Cadmium-Induced Molecular Defense Mechanisms

    Conclusions

    References

    Part IV: Genotoxic Effects of Heavy Metals

    6 Cellular Changes in Mammalian Cells Induced by Cadmium

    Introduction

    Oxydative DNA Damage Caused by Heavy Metals

    Methods

    Chemicals

    Solutions

    Cell Growth

    Heavy Metal Treatment

    Cell Cycle Synchronization

    Flow Cytometry

    Reversible Permeabilization of Cells

    DNA Synthesis in Reversibly Permeabilized Cells

    DNA Isolation

    Random Oligonucleotide-Primed Synthesis (ROPS) Assay

    Analysis of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine

    Isolation of Nuclei

    Spreads of Nuclear Structures

    Visualization of Chromatin Structures

    Results

    Cellular Effects of Cadmium

    Effect of Cd on Replicative and Repair Synthesis

    DNA Strand Breaks and Oxidative DNA Damage Generated by Cd

    Chromatin Changes Induced by Cd

    Growth Inhibition by Cd in Murine PreB Cells

    Chromatin Changes Induced by Cd in Murine PreB Cells

    Discussion

    References

    7 Chromatin Toxicity of Ni(II) Ions in K562 Erythroleukemia Cells

    Introduction

    Materials and Methods

    Chemicals and Reagents

    Cell Growth

    Treatment with Nickel Chloride

    Reversible Permeabilization of Cells

    Isolation of Nuclei

    Spreads of Nuclear Structures

    Visualization of Large Scale Chromatin Structures

    Time-Lapse Photography

    Results

    Cellular Toxicity of NiCl2

    Chromatin Structures of Normal Untreated Cells

    Density Changes in Chromatin Structures at Low (0.2 and 0.5 µM) Concentrations of Ni(II)

    Apoptotic Chromatin Changes at Elevated (1–5 µM) Concentrations of Nickel Chloride

    Chromatin Changes at Higher (10 µM) Nickel Chloride Concentration

    Necrotic Chromatin Changes at High (50 µM) Nickel Chloride Concentration

    Cellular Motion After 100 µM NiCl2 Treatment

    Discussion

    Conclusions

    References

    8 Genotoxic Chromatin Changes in Schizosaccharomyces Pombe Induced by Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) Ions

    Introduction

    Materials and Methods

    Materials and Solutions

    Cell Growth

    Toxicity of Cr (VI) on S. Pombe

    Preparation of Protoplasts

    Isolation and Visualization of Large Scale Chromatin Structures

    Results

    Visualization of Interphase Chromatin Structures of S. Pombe

    Cellular Toxicity of Cr(VI)

    Apoptotic Chromatin Changes at Low Cr(VI) Concentration (10–50 µM)

    Necrotic Chromatin Changes at Higher Cr(VI) Concentration

    Discussion

    Conclusions

    References

    9 Chromatin Changes upon Silver Nitrate Treatment in Human Keratinocyte HaCaT and K562 Erythroleukemia Cells

    Introduction

    Materials and Methods

    Chemicals and Reagents

    Cell Culture and Silver Nitrate Exposure

    Isolation and Visualization of Large Scale Chromatin Structures

    Time-Lapse Photography

    Changes in Chromatin Structure upon Silver Nitrate Exposure

    Results

    Cell Viability After AgNO3 Treatment

    Time-Lapse Analysis of Cell Death

    Chromatin Structures in Control HaCaT Cells and After Subtoxic (0.5 µM) Concentration of Silver Nitrate Treatment

    Chromatin Changes at Low (5–10 µM) Concentrations of Silver Nitrate in Nuclei of HaCaT Cells

    Chromatin Changes at Elevated (15–20 µM) Concentrations of Silver Nitrate in Nuclei of HaCaT Cells

    Chromatin Changes at Higher (30–50 µM) Concentrations of Silver Nitrate in Nuclei of HaCaT Cells

    Chromatin Structures of Normal Untreated K562 Cells

    Chromatin Changes at Low (0.5–5 µM) Concentrations of Silver Nitrate in Nuclei of K562 Cells

    Shrinkage and Expansion of Nuclear Structures of K562 Cells at Elevated (10–50 µM) Ag+ Concentrations

    Discussion

    Biological Effects of Metallic Silver

    Toxic Effects of Silver Ions

    Cellular Effect of Silver Nitrate on Eukaryotic Cells

    Conclusions

    References

    Part V: Chemical Carcinogenesis Induced by Heavy Metals

    10 Heavy Metal-Induced Carcinogenicity: Depleted Uranium and Heavy-Metal Tungsten Alloy

    Introduction

    Depleted Uranium (DU)

    Heavy-Metal Tungsten Alloy

    Routes of Exposure

    In Vitro Studies

    Depleted Uranium

    Heavy-Metal Tungsten Alloy

    In Vivo Studies

    Depleted Uranium

    Heavy-Metal Tungsten Alloy

    Human Exposures

    Depleted Uranium

    Heavy-Metal Tungsten Alloy

    Conclusions

    References

    11 Role of Oxidative Damage in Metal-Induced Carcinogenesis

    Introduction

    Basic Redox Biochemistry of Carcinogenic Metals

    Oxidative DNA Damage

    DNA Base Damage

    Cross-Linking

    Strand Scission

    Depurination

    Oxidative Protein Damage

    Discussion

    Conclusion

    References

    Part VI: Cellular Responses to Heavy Metal Exposure

    12 Non-native Proteins as Newly-Identified Targets of Heavy Metals and Metalloids

    Introduction

    Principles of Protein Folding

    Interaction of Heavy Metals with Functional Groups of Proteins

    Interference of Heavy Metals with the Refolding of Chemically Denatured Proteins

    Mechanism of Folding Inhibition by Heavy Metal Ions

    Interference of As(III) Species with Oxidative Refolding of Disulfide Bond-Containing Proteins

    Possible Sequels of Protein Folding Inhibition in Cells

    Conclusions

    References

    13 Cellular Mechanisms to Respond to Cadmium Exposure: Ubiquitin Ligases

    Introduction

    Ubiquitin System

    E3 Ubiquitin Ligases

    Cullin-Ring Ligases (CRLs)

    The SCF-Complex

    Cadmium and Ubiquitin Ligases

    Cellular Response to Cadmium Exposure

    Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Transcription Factor Met4

    Cadmium Exposure Leads to the Disassembly of SCFMet30

    The Schizosaccharomyces Pombe Transcription Factor Zip1

    SCFPof1 is Responsible for the Ubiquitination of Zip1

    Mammalian Transcription Factor Nrf2

    KEAP1-CUL3 Ubiquitin Ligase is Responsible for the Ubiquitination of Nrf2

    Conclusions

    References

    14 Metals Induced Disruption of Ubiquitin Proteasome System, Activation of Stress Signaling and Apoptosis

    Introduction

    The Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS)

    UPS and Neurodegenerative Disease

    Environmental Metals Exposure and Neurodegenerative Disease

    Results and Discussion

    MeHg, Cd2+, and As3+ Induced Alteration of the Proteasome Activity

    MeHg, Cd2+, and As3+ Induced Accumulation of HMW-polyUb

    MeHg, Cd2+, and As3+ Induced Activation of MAPK Signaling

    Integrative Genomic Gene Expression Analysis and Pathway Mapping

    Interruptions of UPS Pathway

    Conclusions

    References

    Part VII: Biomarkers

    15 Blood Lead Level (BLL, B-Pb) in Human and Animal Populations: B-Pb as a Biological Marker to Environmental Lead Exposure

    Introduction

    Aims

    Methods

    Biomonitoring and Biomarkers: Human and Animal Approach

    Toxicokinetics of Lead

    Effects of Lead on Red Blood Cells

    Biomarkers of Lead Exposure

    Blood Lead Concentration

    Blood Lead Levels’ Reference Values

    Alternative Biomarkers

    Lead in Plasma/Serum

    Animal Populations

    Biomonitoring in Pets

    Conclusions

    References

    Part VIII: Removal of Heavy Metals

    16 Removal of Heavy Metal Sulfides and Toxic Contaminants from Water

    Introduction

    Methods

    Chemicals and Reagents

    Precipitation and Removal of Heavy Metals

    Determination of Heavy Metal Content

    Fish

    Guppy Ecotoxicity Test

    Treatment with Carbogen Gas and Air Flow

    Results

    Analogy Between the Chemistry of Removing Cyanide and Heavy Metals

    Removal of Hg2+, Ni2+ and Pb2+ as their Sulfides

    Ecotoxicity Test of Heavy Metal Ions

    Removal of Sodium Sulfide from Water

    pH Changes during Carbogen Treatment

    Survival of Fish upon Removal of Heavy Metal and Sodium Sulfide

    Discussion

    Conclusions

    References

    Index

    Hidden contents (Our Amazon affiliate links)
    You must click 'Thank You' before you can see the data contained here. You can purchase this item from Amazon with discount through our amazon affiliate link.
    BUT You DONOT have sufficient rights to see the hidden data contained here.
    Please Register to see contents.
    Reply With Quote Reply With Quote
    Thanks

  2. #2
    rocky's Avatar
    Silver Member

    Status
    Offline
    Join Date
    Apr 2011
    Work
    Veterinary Resident
    Country
    Iran
    Gender
    Male
    Total Posts
    103
    Rep Power
    623
    Total thanks received
    5,191
    Thanks for this post
    47
    Veterinary Resident I'm from Iran

    Default Re: Cellular Effects of Heavy Metals



    Alternative link 05.07.2013

    Hidden contents (Our Amazon affiliate links)
    You must click 'Thank You' before you can see the data contained here. You can purchase this item from Amazon with discount through our amazon affiliate link.
    BUT You DONOT have sufficient rights to see the hidden data contained here.
    Please Register to see contents.
    Reply With Quote Reply With Quote
    Thanks

Similar Threads

  1. Effects of Pollution on Fish: Molecular Effects and Population Responses
    By huyts in forum AquaCulture and Fish eBooks
    Replies: 1
    Last Post: 17th June 2013, 04:00 PM
  2. Metals, Fertility and Reproductive Toxicity
    By drsammohan in forum General Veterinary eBooks
    Replies: 5
    Last Post: 11th November 2012, 12:32 PM
  3. Compendium of Trace Metals and Marine Biota: Vol 1 and Vol 2
    By Animal in forum AquaCulture and Fish eBooks
    Replies: 1
    Last Post: 2nd August 2012, 02:03 PM
  4. Detoxification of Heavy Metals
    By rocky in forum General Veterinary eBooks
    Replies: 0
    Last Post: 31st December 2011, 09:29 PM

Tags for this Thread

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •