Detoxification of Heavy Metals
by: Irena Sherameti, Ajit Varma

size: 4.58 MB [ 4800430 bytes ]
type: .pdf

year: 2011
pages: 477
bookmarked: yes
paginated: yes
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cover: yes
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issn: 1613-3382
doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-21408-0
series: Soil Biology
volume: 30
googlebookid: 8cpgCtbTGG0C

Heavy metals are severe environmental pollutants, and many of them are toxic even at very low concentrations. With industrial development, soil pollution with heavy metal elements have dramatically increased. The uptake of heavy metals via plants that are exposed to contaminated soils is a risk for human health and a major hazard for the ecosystem as a whole, including soil microorganisms. On the other hand, plants may be used in the decontamination of soils.The topics presented in this book include: sources of heavy metals contaminants in soils; plant species that can grow on contaminated soils; the phytoremediation of contaminated soils; tolerance, accumulation and detoxification mechanisms of zinc, copper, arsenic, cadmium and vanadium in plants; the critical role of sulfur metabolism in heavy metal tolerance; the role of aquatic macrophytes, plant growth-promoting bacteria, sugar crops and earthworms in detoxification; and heavy metal stabilization by promoting zeolite synthesis in soils.

Soil Biology 30

Detoxification of Heavy Metals

ISBN 9783642214073






Chapter 1: Detoxification of Heavy Metals: State of Art

1.1 Introduction

1.2 The Origin of Heavy Metals in Soil

1.2.1 Geochemical Origins of Heavy Metals

1.2.2 Sources of Heavy Metals Contaminants in Soils Metaliferous Mining and Materials Agricultural and Horticultural Materials Sewage Sludge Fossil Fuel Combustion Metallurgical Industries Electronics Chemical and Other Industrial Sources Waste Disposable

1.3 Soil-Plant Relationships of Heavy Metals

1.3.1 Soil-Plant System

1.3.2 Plant Uptake of Metals

1.3.3 The Biological Essentiality of Trace Elements

1.3.4 Heavy Metal Toxicity in Plants

1.3.5 Effects of Heavy Metals on the Soil Microbial Mass

1.4 Heavy Metal Detoxification of Soil

1.4.1 Physiochemical Methods of Remediating Metal Polluted Soil Excavation Method Capping of the Polluted Soil Fixation and Inactivation (Stabilization) of the Polluted Soil Soil Washing

1.4.2 Biological Approaches of Remediating Metal Polluted Soil Microorganism-Based Remediation

Metal Exclusion by Permeability Barrier

Active Transport of the Metal Away from the Microorganism

Intracellular Sequestration of Metals by Protein Binding

Extracellular Sequestration

Enzymatic Detoxification of a Metal to a Less Toxic Form

Reduction in Metal Sensitivity of Cellular Targets Phytoremediation of Heavy Metal Polluted Soil





1.5 Heavy Metal Tolerance Mechanism(s) in Plants

1.5.1 Extracellular Avoidance of Metal Buildup Mycorrhizas The Cell Wall and Root Exudates Plasma Membrane

1.5.2 Intracellular Detoxification Pathways Heat Shock Proteins Phytochelatins Metallothioneins Organic Acids and Amino Acids Antioxidative Defense Mechanism Heavy Metal Sequestration

In Vacuoles

In Trichome and Hydropotes

1.6 Conclusion


Chapter 2: Plants in Heavy Metal Soils

2.1 Heavy Metal Soils

2.2 The Heavy Metal Plants (Metallophytes)

2.3 Accumulating and Hyperaccumulating Metallophytes

2.4 Strategies Employed by the Metallophytes to Cope with High Concentrations of Heavy Metals at the Whole Plant Level

2.5 Toxicity of the Heavy Metals in Cells and Responses of the Plant Cells

2.6 Genes and Their Expressions Upon Heavy Metal Stress in Plants

2.7 Aspects of the Use of Metallophytes to Remediate Soils Polluted by Heavy Metals

2.8 Conclusions


Chapter 3: Functional Significance of Metal Ligands in Hyperaccumulating Plants: What Do We Know?

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Problems in Maintaining Metal Homeostasis

3.3 Soil-Metal Partitioning and Toxicity

3.4 Metal Immobilization and Transport in the Root

3.5 Metal Immobilization and Compartmentalization in the Shoot

3.6 In Situ Analyses of Metal Ligands in Plants

3.7 Conclusions


Chapter 4: Progress in Phytoremediating Heavy-Metal Contaminated Soils

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Mechanisms of Four Metal-Removing-Methods

4.2.1 Mechanism of Chemical or Physical Remediation

4.2.2 Mechanism of Animal Remediation

4.2.3 Mechanism of Phytoremediation Accumulation and Transport Detoxification

4.2.4 Mechanism of Microremediation Metal-Binding Mechanism Valence Transformation Mechanism Volatilization Mechanism Extracellular Chemical Precipitation Mechanism Symbiotic Mechanism

4.3 Evaluation of Four Metal-Removing Methods

4.3.1 Summarized Disadvantages of Chemical/Physical Remediation

4.3.2 Summarized Disadvantages of Animal Remediation

4.4 Future Development and Opportunities of Bioremediation (Phyto- and Micro-remediation)

4.4.1 Application of Genetic Engineering or Cell Engineering

4.4.2 The Development of Crop Hyperaccumulators

4.4.3 Universal Procedures of Evaluation before Large-Scale Commercialization

4.5 Conclusions


Chapter 5: Plant Taxonomy and Metal Phytoremediation

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Species for Phytoremediation

5.2.1 Order: Poales Family: Poaceae Family: Cyperaceae Family: Typhaceae Family: Juncaceae

5.2.2 Order: Malpighiales Family: Salicaceae Family: Violaceae

5.2.3 Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae

5.2.4 Order: Rosales Family: Rosaceae Family: Cannabaceae

5.2.5 Order: Brassicales Family: Brassicaceae

5.2.6 Order: Caryophyllales Family: Plumbaginaceae Family: Betaceae Family: Amaranthaceae Family: Caryophylaceae Family: Polygonaceae Family: Tamaricaceae

5.2.7 Order: Solanales Family: Solanaceae

5.2.8 Order: Asterales Family: Asteraceae

5.3 Conclusions


Chapter 6: Reclamation of Contaminated Mine Ponds Using Marble Wastes, Organic Amendments, and Phytoremediation

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Material and Methods

6.2.1 Study Site

6.2.2 Field Experimental Set-Up

6.2.3 Soil and Vegetation Sampling and Analytical Methods

6.2.4 Statistical Analyses

6.3 Results

6.3.1 General Physicochemical Properties of Tailing Ponds and Amendments

6.3.2 Evolution of Soil Properties in Field-Plots Trial

6.3.3 Biochemical Properties

6.3.4 Factor Analyses

6.3.5 Vegetation

6.4 Conclusion


Chapter 7: The Role of Membrane Transport in the Detoxification and Accumulation of Zinc in Plants

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Biological Importance of Zn as a Structural Element and a Signal

7.2.1 Zn as a Cofactor of Enzymes and Transcription Factors

7.2.2 Zn as a Signal

7.3 Acquisition and Distribution of Zn

7.4 Transport of Zn Across Membranes

7.4.1 Diversity of Zn Transporters

7.4.2 Zn Transporters in the Plasma Membrane

7.4.3 Zn Transporters in the Vacuolar Membrane

7.4.4 Zn Transporters in Other Organelles

7.4.5 Regulation of Zn-Related Genes

7.5 Conclusion


Chapter 8: Initial Steps of Copper Detoxification: Outside and Inside of the Plant Cell

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Role of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza

8.3 Apoplast Involvement in Copper Detoxification

8.3.1 Microscopic Methods of Cu Localization in the Cell Wall and Periplasmatic Space

8.3.2 Some Approaches for Distinction Between Apoplastic and Symplastic Cu Pools

8.3.3 Isolated Cell Walls as a Model for Studying Cu Immobilization in the Apoplast

8.4 Initial Steps of Intracellular Copper Detoxification

8.5 Nanoparticles of Metallic Copper in Plants

8.5.1 Production of Copper Nanoparticles by Plants

8.5.2 Action of Cu0 Nanoparticles on Plants

8.6 Conclusion


Chapter 9: Arsenic Tolerance and Detoxification Mechanisms in Plants

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Mechanisms of Arsenic Tolerance and Accumulation

9.3 Mechanisms of Arsenic Detoxification

9.3.1 Chelation of Arsenite with Glutathione and Phytochelatins

9.3.2 Restricting Translocation of Arsenic from Root to Shoot Through Efficient Chelation in Roots

9.3.3 Sequestration of Arsenic into Root or Shoot Vacuoles Either in the Form of Complex or as Ions

9.4 Conclusion


Chapter 10: Cadmium Metal Detoxification and Hyperaccumulators

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Cadmium in the Environment

10.3 Cadmium Hyperaccumulator Plants

10.4 Uptake and Bioaccumulation of Cadmium

10.4.1 Cadmium Uptake by Absorption

10.4.2 Transporter Mediated Uptake of Cd in Plants

10.5 Biomass Production and Biochemical Responses of Cd Hyperaccumulator Plants Toward Elevated Cd Levels

10.6 Chelation and Detoxification of Cadmium in Plants

10.6.1 Metallothioneines

10.6.2 Phytochelatins

10.6.3 Organic Acids

10.6.4 Ectomycorrhiza

10.7 Genes Involved in Cd Metal Hyperaccumulation and Detoxification in Plants

10.8 Conclusion


Chapter 11: Transport, Accumulation, and Physiological Effects of Vanadium

11.1 Introduction

11.2 The Aqueous Chemistry of Vanadium

11.3 Occurrence and Biological Usage

11.4 Physiological Effects and Toxicity

11.5 Uptake, Speciation, Excretion, and Detoxification

11.6 Conclusion


Chapter 12: Microbial Remediation of Arsenic Contaminated Soil

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Sources of Arsenic in Soil

12.3 Forms of Arsenic in Soil

12.4 Arsenic Toxicity of Food Chain

12.5 Microbial Transformation of Arsenic

12.6 Microbial Remediation

12.6.1 Oxidation

12.6.2 Reduction

12.6.3 Biomethylation and Demethylation

12.6.4 Complexation and Solubilization

12.6.5 Sequestration

12.6.6 Biofilm and Biosorption

12.6.7 Bioaugmentation and Biostimulation

12.6.8 Microbially Enhanced Phytoremediation

12.6.9 Engineered Microbes for Arsenic Remediation

12.7 Conclusion


Chapter 13: Fate of Cadmium in Calcareous Soils under Salinity Conditions

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Soil Salinity

13.3 Fate of Cadmium in Calcareous Soils

13.3.1 Cadmium in Soil

13.3.2 Cadmium Fractionation in Calcareous Soils

13.3.3 Salinity and Cadmium Fractionation

13.3.4 Salinity and Cadmium Speciation

13.4 Cadmium Detoxification

13.5 Remediation Techniques

13.6 Phytoremediation

13.7 Conclusion


Chapter 14: Organellar Proteomics: A High-Throughput Approach for better Understanding of Heavy Metal Accumulation and Detoxification in Plants

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Proteomic Studies in Response to Heavy Metal Toxicity

14.3 The Role of Functional Analysis of Organellar Proteins in Understanding Heavy Metal Detoxification Mechanisms

14.3.1 Cell Wall and Microsomal Proteomics

14.3.2 Cytosolic Proteomics

14.3.3 Vacuolar Proteomics

14.4 Conclusions


Chapter 15: Sulfur Metabolism as a Support System for Plant Heavy Metal Tolerance

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Overview of Sulfur Metabolism

15.3 Sulfur Transporters

15.4 Sulfur Assimilation

15.4.1 ATP Sulfurylase

15.4.2 APS Reductase

15.4.3 Sulfite Reductase

15.5 Cysteine Synthesis

15.5.1 Serine Acetyltransferase

15.5.2 O-Acetylserine Sulfhydrylase (O-Acetylserine-Thiolyase)

15.6 Alternative Sources of Sulfide Under Stress

15.7 Natural Hyperaccumulators

15.8 Conclusion


Chapter 16: Cd(II)-Activated Synthesis of Phytochelatins

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Dipeptidyl Transfer of PCS

16.2.1 Direction of PC Synthesis

16.2.2 Acylation of PCS

16.3 Kinetic Analysis of Enzyme Reaction

16.3.1 Assignment of the Substrates in a PC Synthetic Reaction

16.3.2 Binding of Cd(II) to Activate PCS

16.3.3 Inhibitory Second Cd(II) Binding Site of rAtPCS1

16.4 Conclusion


Chapter 17: Tolerance, Accumulation, and Detoxification Mechanism of Copper in Elsholtzia splendens

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Behavior of Cu in Root-Soil Interface of Elsholtzia splendens

17.2.1 Chemical Speciation of Cu in Root-Soil Interface

17.2.2 Root Exudates and Rhizosphere Microorganisms on Cu Activation Root Exudates on Cu Activation Rhizosphere Microorganisms on Cu Activation

17.3 Impact of Cu on Elsholtzia splendens

17.3.1 Symptoms of Elsholtzia splendens Under Cu Stress Effects on Seed Germination Effects on Elsholtzia splendens Growth

17.3.2 Biochemical and Physiological Changes of Elsholtzia splendens Under Cu Stress Essential Nutrient Metabolism Photosynthesis Oxidative Stress

17.3.3 Impact of Cu on the Structure of Elsholtzia splendens The Impact of Copper on Tissues Structure of Elsholtzia splendens The Impact of Copper on Cells Ultrastructure of Elsholtzia splendens

17.4 Uptake and Accumulation of Cu by Elsholtzia splendens

17.4.1 Copper Concentration and Accumulation of Elsholtzia splendens Cu Concentration of Elsholtzia splendens in Old Mined Area Cu Concentration of Elsholtzia splendens in Pot Experiments Cu Concentration of Elsholtzia splendens in Hydroponic Conditions

17.4.2 Factors Influencing Cu Uptake and Accumulation by Elsholtzia splendens Physical and Chemical Properties of Soil Microorganisms Chelating Agents Other Factors

17.5 Distribution and Location of Cu in Elsholtzia splendens

17.5.1 Cu Microdistribution in Different Tissues of Elsholtzia splendens Cu Microdistribution in Cross sections of Leaf, Petiole, and Stem Using SRXRF Cu Distribution in Leaf Using LA-ICP-MS

17.5.2 Subcellular Localization of Cu in Elsholtzia splendens

17.6 Speciation and Biotransformation of Copper in Elsholtzia splendens

17.6.1 Research Methods of Heavy Metal Speciation

17.6.2 Speciation and Biotransformation of Copper in Elsholtzia splendens Cu-Histidine Cu-Cell Wall Cu-Oxalate Cu-Glutathione

17.7 Molecular Mechanisms of Cu Tolerance, Accumulation, and Detoxification in Elsholtzia splendens

17.7.1 Genomics

17.7.2 Transcriptomics

17.7.3 Proteomics

17.8 Conclusion


Chapter 18: Role of Aquatic Macrophytes in Biogeochemical Cycling of Heavy Metals, Relevance to Soil-Sediment Continuum Detoxification and Ecosystem Health

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Soil-Sediment Continuum

18.3 Role of Macrophytes in Trace Metal Dynamics in Wetland Sediments

18.4 Mechanisms of Tolerance to Metals in Aquatic Macrophytes

18.4.1 Metal Immobilization

18.4.2 Chelation

18.4.3 Metabolic Adaptations

18.4.4 Translocation

18.5 Effect of Metals on Photosynthesis in Aquatic Macrophytes

18.6 Polymetallic Contamination

18.7 Conclusion


Chapter 19: Role of Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria and Fungi in Heavy Metal Detoxification

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Heavy Metals as a Soil Pollution Agent

19.3 Phytoremediation

19.4 Heavy Metal Detoxification and Tolerance in Higher Plants

19.4.1 Fungi

19.4.2 Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria Isolated Microorganisms ACC Deaminase Activity (ACC:1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid) Ethylene

19.5 Protecting Metal Inhibitory Effect

19.6 Conclusions


Chapter 20: Detoxification of Heavy Metals From Soils Through Sugar Crops

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Remediation of Heavy Metals From Soils

20.3 Sugar Crops

20.3.1 Sugar Cane

20.3.2 Sugar Beet

20.3.3 Sorghum

20.4 Heavy Metals Content in Sugar Crops

20.4.1 Sugar Cane

20.4.2 Sugar Beet

20.4.3 Sorghum

20.5 Phytoremediation of Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils

20.5.1 Sugar Cane

20.5.2 Sugar Beet

20.5.3 Sorghum

20.6 Conclusions


Chapter 21: Detoxification of Heavy Metals Using Earthworms

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Ecological Classification of Earthworms

21.3 Earthworm Distribution in Soil

21.4 Factors Affecting Earthworm Population and Activity

21.4.1 Climate

21.4.2 Soil Properties

21.5 Earthworm Castings

21.6 Earthworm Effects on Soil Characteristics

21.7 Earthworm-Heavy Metal Relationships and Accumulation and Detoxification of Heavy Metals by Earthworms

21.8 Conclusion


Chapter 22: Heavy Metal Stabilization by Promoting Zeolite Synthesis in Soil

22.1 Introduction

22.1.1 Zeolites

22.1.2 Aim of the Remediation Process

22.2 Promoted Zeolite Synthesis in Soil

22.3 Promoted Zeolite Synthesis in HM-Polluted Soils

22.4 Microscopic Observations

22.5 Description of the Stabilization Process

22.6 Conclusions



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