Sturgeons and Paddlefish of North America

Edited by
Greg T.O. LeBreton
F. William H. Beamish
and
R. Scott McKinley



  • Publication Date: 2004
  • Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
  • Format: Paperback, 336pp
  • eBook ISBN: 1-4020-2833-4
    Print ISBN: 1-4020-2832-6


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Foreword .................................................. .................................................. .................... v
Series Editor's Foreword.……………………………………………………………...vii
Introduction: The Decline of the North American Species ............................................ 1
Inga Saffron
1. Native American Utilization of Sturgeon .................................................. .............. 22
Tim E. Holzkamm and Leo G. Waisberg
1.1 Introduction...................................... .................................................. .............. 22
1.2 Areas Of North America Where Native Americans Harvested Sturgeon and
Paddlefish .................................................. .................................................. ........... 22
1.3 Conclusion .................................................. .................................................. ... 35
1.4 References........................................ .................................................. .............. 36
2. Distribution, Habitat, and Movements......................................... ............................ 40
Jennifer A. Wilson and R. Scott McKinley
2.1 Introduction...................................... .................................................. .............. 40
2.2 Distribution and Status............................................ ......................................... 41
2.3 Habitat........................................... .................................................. ................. 53
2.4 Migratory Behaviour......................................... ............................................... 62
2.5 Management .................................................. .................................................. 67
2.6 References........................................ .................................................. .............. 69
3. Environmental Requirements, Preferences, and Tolerance Limits of North American
Sturgeons......................................... .................................................. ........................... 73
Joseph J. Cech Jr. and Serge I. Doroshov
3.1 Introduction...................................... .................................................. .............. 73
3.2 North American Species .................................................. ................................ 73
3.3 References........................................ .................................................. .............. 83
4. The Ecology and Functional Morphology of Feeding of North American Sturgeon
and Paddlefish .................................................. .................................................. .......... 87
Michael J. Miller
4.1 Introduction...................................... .................................................. .............. 87
4.2 Feeding ecology of North American sturgeons and paddlefish ....................... 88
4.3 References........................................ .................................................. ............ 100
5. Sturgeon Ecomorphology: A Descriptive Approach ............................................. 103
P. Vecsei and D. Peterson
5.1 Introduction...................................... .................................................. ............ 103
5.2 Evolution and Brief Overview of Family Acipenseridae............................... 103
ix
x
5.3 Form, Function, and Movement.......................................... ........................... 104
5.4 Descriptive Morphology .................................................. .............................. 105
5.5 Ecomorphology..................................... .................................................. ....... 109
5.6 A New Ecological Guild: The Supra-Benthos Cruisers................................. 109
5.7 Descriptive Morphology of North American Species.................................... 114
5.8 Intraspecific Morphological Variation......................................... .................. 122
5.9 References........................................ .................................................. ............ 132
6. Embryology........................................ .................................................. ................. 134
Jessica A. Bolker
6.1 Introduction...................................... .................................................. ............ 134
6.2 History of developmental research in sturgeons ............................................ 134
6.3 Scope of modern research.......................................... .................................... 135
6.4 Developmental stages and timing .................................................. ................ 136
6.5 Major stages of embryonic development .................................................. ..... 136
6.6 Developmental bottlenecks and abnormalities..................................... .......... 142
6.7 Formation of the body axis, cns and heart .................................................. ... 143
6.8 Conclusion .................................................. .................................................. . 144
6.9 References........................................ .................................................. ............ 144
7. Swimming and Respiration .................................................. ................................. 147
Stephan J. Peake
7.1 Introduction...................................... .................................................. ............ 147
7.2 Behaviour, performance, and respiration in forced swimming tests .............. 147
7.3 Morphological constraints on swimming activity and respiration ................. 155
7.4 Environmental constraints on swimming activity and respiration ................. 159
7.5 Management implications...................................... ........................................ 163
7.6 References........................................ .................................................. ............ 164
8. Sturgeon and Paddlefish Metabolism........................................ ............................ 167
Thomas D. Singer and James S. Ballantyne
8.1 Introduction...................................... .................................................. ............ 167
8.2 Digestion......................................... .................................................. ............. 167
8.3 Oxidative Metabolism........................................ ............................................ 169
8.4 Carbohydrate Metabolism........................................ ...................................... 171
8.5 Lipid Metabolism........................................ .................................................. . 173
8.6 Ketone Body Metabolism........................................ ...................................... 177
8.7 Nitrogen Metabolism........................................ ............................................. 177
8.8 Hormonal Control of Metabolism........................................ .......................... 178
8.9 Toxicant Metabolism........................................ ............................................. 180
8.10 Environmental Effects on Metabolism .................................................. ...... 181
8.11 Evolutionary Considerations.................................... .................................... 187
8.12 References........................................ .................................................. .......... 188
9. Growth, Bioenergetics and Age............................................... .............................. 195
G.T.O. LeBreton and F.W. (Bill) H. Beamish
9.1 Introduction...................................... .................................................. ............ 195
9.2 Growth and Environmental Factors .................................................. ............. 200
xi
9.3 Growth and Biological Factors .................................................. .................... 205
9.4 Age, Aging, and the Use of Hard Tissues in Ecological Investigations......... 210
9.5 Conclusion .................................................. .................................................. . 213
9.6 References........................................ .................................................. ............ 214
10. Genetics of North American Acipenseriformes.................................. ................. 217
Michael R. Robinson and Moira M. Ferguson
10.1 Introduction...................................... .................................................. .......... 217
10.2 Genomic Organization .................................................. ............................... 217
10.3 Genome Evolution .................................................. ..................................... 220
10.4 Transmission Genetics .................................................. ............................... 221
10.5 Phylogenetics .................................................. ............................................. 222
10.6 Species Relationships..................................... .............................................. 223
10.7 Population Genetics .................................................. ................................... 224
10.8 Conclusions and Future Prospects .................................................. ............. 226
10.9 References........................................ .................................................. .......... 227
11. Multijurisdictional Management of Lake Sturgeon in the Great Lakes and St.
Lawrence River .................................................. .................................................. ...... 231
Nancy J. Lιonard, William W. Taylor, and Christopher Goddard
11.1 Introduction...................................... .................................................. .......... 231
11.2 Lake sturgeon in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River ................................ 232
11.3 Successes of cooperative management for lake sturgeon ............................ 236
11.4 Current management of lake sturgeon .................................................. ....... 238
11.5 The potential for multijurisdictional management of lake sturgeon ............ 240
11.6 International perspective on lake sturgeon.......................................... ......... 241
11.7 Future Outlook........................................... .................................................. 245
11.8 References........................................ .................................................. .......... 247
12. Conservation...................................... .................................................. ................ 252
Nancy A. Auer
12.1 Introduction...................................... .................................................. .......... 252
12.2 Status of Acipenseriformes species........................................... ................... 252
12.3 Reasons for the Initial Decline of the Species in North America................. 254
12.4 Persistent Threats to Recovery of North American Species ........................ 254
12.5 Recent Advances in Recovery of Acipenseriformes in North America....... 261
12.6 The Future for Sturgeon and Paddlefish in North America – Walking a
Tightrope......................................... .................................................. .................... 268
12.7 References........................................ .................................................. .......... 271
13. Aquaculture .................................................. .................................................. ..... 277
Joel P. Van Eenennaam, Frank A. Chapman, and Peter L. Jarvis
13.1 Introduction...................................... .................................................. .......... 277
13.2 White Sturgeon Culture .................................................. ............................. 278
13.3 Wild Broodstock .................................................. ........................................ 278
13.4 Growout Systems........................................... .............................................. 281
13.5 Feed and Feeding Methods .................................................. ........................ 282
13.6 Water Quality........................................... .................................................. .. 284
xii
13.7 Domestic Broodstock Development .................................................. .......... 284
13.8 Commercial Production .................................................. ............................. 292
13.9 Paddlefish Culture........................................... ............................................. 294
13.10 Culture of Other Sturgeon Species........................................... .................. 297
13.11 Challenges........................................ .................................................. ........ 300
13.12 Summary........................................... .................................................. ....... 302
13.13 References........................................ .................................................. ........ 303
Conclusion: Ensuring The Future Of Sturgeon .................................................. ........ 312
Kevin G. Butterworth and Nancy J. Lιonard
References .................................................. .................................................. .............. 314
Identification Key to Sturgeons and Paddlefish of North America ............................ 315
Martin Hochleithner and Paul Vecsei
References .................................................. .................................................. .............. 318
Glossary.......................................... .................................................. .......................... 319

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