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Thread: Shellfish Aquaculture and the Environment 2012

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    Arrow Shellfish Aquaculture and the Environment 2012

    Shellfish Aquaculture and the Environment
    Sandra E. Shumway (Editor)







    ISBN: 978-0-8138-1413-1
    528 pages,
    October 2011,
    -.



    Book Description

    Shellfish Aquaculture and the Environment focuses primarily on the issues surrounding environmental sustainability of shellfish aquaculture. The chapters in this book provide readers with the most current data available on topics such as resource enhancement and habitat restoration. Shellfish Aquaculture and the Environment is also an invaluable resource for those looking to develop and implement environmental best management practices. Edited one of the world's leading shellfish researchers and with contributions from around the world, Shellfish Aquaculture and the Environment is the definitive source of information for this increasingly important topic.



    Table of Contents

    Preface xv
    1 The role of shellfish farms in provision of ecosystem goods and services 3
    Introduction 3

    Methods of study 6
    Ecosystem goods: biomass production 13
    Ecosystem services: environmental quality 17
    Literature cited 26
    2 Shellfish aquaculture and the environment: an industry perspective 33
    Introduction 33

    Shellfish farmers and harvesters history of water quality
    protection and stewardship roles 35
    BMPs, the shellfish industry, and the role of available research 42
    Conclusion 48
    Literature cited 48
    3 Molluscan shellfish aquaculture and best management practices 51
    Introduction 51
    Ecosystem change and shellfish aquaculture 53
    Classifi cation of impacts 53
    BMPs 54
    Assurance labeling 64
    Pressures to participate in certifi cation programs 65
    Perspectives on ecolabeling 67
    Aquaculture certifi cation programs 68
    Critique of bivalve shellfish ecolabeling efforts in the
    United States 70
    Criticisms of certifi cation programs 73
    Towards more meaningful labeling 75
    Concluding remarks 77
    Literature cited 78
    4 Bivalve filter feeding: variability and limits of the aquaculture biofilter 81
    Introduction 81

    Constraints on maximum feeding activity 82
    Shellfi sh feeding in nature 85
    Emerging knowledge on ecosystem interactions with the bivalve biofilter 109
    Conclusions 111
    Literature cited 113
    5 Trophic interactions between phytoplankton and bivalve aquaculture 125
    The interdependence of bivalves and phytoplankton 125

    Bivalve population density: farmed bivalves are naturally gregarious 127
    Bivalves as consumers and cultivators of phytoplankton 127
    Summary and prospects 130
    Acknowledgments 131
    Literature cited 131
    6 The application of dynamic modeling to prediction of production carrying capacity in shellfi sh farming 135
    Physical oceanographic models 139

    Filtration and seston depletion 140
    Single-box models 140
    Higher-order models 142
    Fully spatial models 143
    Population-based models 145
    Local models 146
    Optimization 147
    Application to management 148
    Modeling environmental impact 149
    Sustainability and ecosystem-based management 150
    Literature cited 151
    7 Bivalve shellfi sh aquaculture and eutrophication 155
    Summary 155

    Introduction 156
    Most commonly reported: localized changes associated with shellfi sh aquaculture 158
    Interpretations from an ecosystem approach 179
    Modeling efforts to assess relationships between bivalve aquaculture and eutrophication 187
    Eutrophication of coastal waters from land-based nutrients 192
    Ecological and economic benefit of bivalve aquaculture in combating eutrophication 195
    Conclusions 200
    Literature cited 201
    8 Mussel farming as a tool for re-eutrophication of coastal waters: experiences from Sweden 217
    Introduction 217

    Mussel farming: open landscape feeding in the sea 217
    Estimating the environmental value of mussel farming 219
    Trading nutrient discharges 222
    Agricultural environmental aid program and mussel farming 224
    Added ecosystem services through mussel farming 226
    The city of lysekil, the first buyer of a nutrient emission quota 226
    Swedish mussel farming and its markets 227
    Mussel meal instead of fish meal in organic feeds 229
    Mussel meal in feeds for organic poultry 230
    The use of the mussel remainder as fertilizer and biogas production 232
    Risk assessment of mussels for seafood, feed, and fertilizer 233
    Conclusions of the Swedish experience 234
    Literature cited 235
    9 Expanding shellfi sh aquaculture: a review of the ecological services provided by and impacts of native and cultured bivalves in shellfi sh-dominated ecosystems 239
    Introduction 239

    Aquaculture-based systems 249
    Remaining questions 272
    Literature cited 274
    10 Bivalves as bioturbators and bioirrigators 297
    Bivalves are key species in soft-sediment habitats 297

    What are bioturbation and bioirrigation? 298
    How do healthy soft-sediment bivalve populations affect their surroundings? 303
    Summary 311
    Literature cited 312
    11 Environmental impacts related to mechanical harvest of cultured shellfi sh 319
    Introduction 319

    Literature review 320
    Experimental design 329
    Conclusions 334
    Acknowledgments 335
    Literature cited 335
    12 Genetics of shellfish on a human-dominated planet 339
    Introduction 339

    Domestication of shellfish 341
    Conservation 347
    Conclusions 352
    Literature cited 352
    13 Shellfi sh diseases and health management 359
    Shellfish health management and infectious disease prevention 359

    Interactions of bivalve shellfish and parasites with the natural environment 360
    Interactions of hosts and disease agents within the aquaculture environment 367
    Solutions: 1. Shellfish aquaculture development and health management 370
    Solutions: 2. Implementing health management for shellfish aquaculture 377
    Summary 385
    Literature cited 386
    14 Marine invaders and bivalve aquaculture: sources, impacts, and consequences 395
    Introduction 395

    Introduced shellfish from aquaculture 397
    Species moved with aquaculture 406
    Introduced species that impact aquaculture 407
    Recommendations for minimizing spread and impacts of introductions 412
    Future needs 415
    Acknowledgments 415
    Literature cited 416
    15 Balancing economic development and conservation of living marine resources and habitats: the role of resource managers 425
    Introduction 425

    Regulatory framework for shellfi sh aquaculture in the United States 429
    Environmental best management practices (BMPs) 440
    Environmental marketing and other incentive programs 440
    Conclusions 442
    Literature cited 443
    16 Education 447
    Skills 447

    Aquaculture-related disciplines 449
    K-12 education 451
    Undergraduate degree programs 452
    Graduate degree programs 453
    4-H and youth programs 454
    Extension programs 455
    Technology transfer 457
    Conclusion 458
    Literature cited 459
    17 The implications of global climate change for molluscan aquaculture 461
    Introduction 461

    Climate change in the oceans and coastal zones 462
    The effects of climate change on shellfish aquaculture systems 467
    Adapting shellfish farming to climate change impacts 478
    Shellfish aquaculture and climate change mitigation 482
    Conclusion 484
    Acknowledgments 485
    Literature cited 485
    Index 491

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