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    Default An Introduction to the Chemistry of the Sea

    An Introduction to the Chemistry of the Sea, 2nd Edition
    by Michael E. Q. Pilson



    Pages: 543
    Publisher: --
    Edition: 2nd, January 28, 2013
    Language: English
    ISBN-10: 0521887070
    ISBN-13: 978-0521887076


    Description

    Fully updated and expanded, this new edition provides students with an accessible introduction to marine chemistry. It highlights geochemical interactions between the ocean, solid earth, atmosphere and climate, enabling students to appreciate the interconnectedness of Earth's processes and systems and elucidates the huge variations in the oceans' chemical environment, from surface waters to deep water. Written in a clear, engaging way, the book provides students in oceanography, marine chemistry and biogeochemistry with the fundamental tools they need for a strong understanding of ocean chemistry. Appendices present information on seawater properties, key equations and constants for calculating oceanographic processes. New to this edition are end-of-chapter problems for students to put theory into practice, summaries to allow easy review of material and a comprehensive glossary. Supporting online resources include solutions to problems and figures from the book.

    Table Of Contents

    Preface page ix
    Acknowledgments xi
    1 Introduction 1
    1.1 Scope of chemical oceanography 2
    1.2 History of chemical oceanography 5
    1.3 Major features of ocean circulation 12
    2 The water in seawater 20
    2.1 Physical properties of water 20
    2.2 Isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen 29
    2.3 Clathrate compounds 41
    3 Salinity, chlorinity, conductivity, and density 46
    3.1 Need for accurate determination of salinity and density 46
    3.2 Salinity 48
    3.3 Chlorinity 51
    3.4 Relationships between chlorinity and salinity 52
    3.5 Conductivity and salinity 53
    3.6 Salinity and density 59
    4 Major constituents of seawater 66
    4.1 Concentrations 66
    4.2 Residence times 69
    5 Simple gases 74
    5.1 Simple gas laws 75
    5.2 Solubility in water 76
    5.3 Sources and sinks within the ocean 80
    5.4 Atmospheric exchange by diffusion 81
    5.5 Air injection 90
    6 Salts in solution 95
    6.1 Solubility of salts 95
    6.2 Freezing point and boiling point 97
    6.3 Osmotic pressure 97
    6.4 Activity coefficients 101
    6.5 Electrostriction 105
    6.6 Absorption of sound 107
    6.7 A note on pH 110
    7 Carbon dioxide 114
    7.1 Reservoirs of carbon dioxide 115
    7.2 Relationships in solution 116
    7.3 Calcium carbonate 136
    7.4 Anthropogenic carbon dioxide 150
    7.5 Longer-term issues 173
    8 Nutrients 176
    8.1 Phosphorus 176
    8.2 Nitrogen 186
    8.3 Silicon 199
    8.4 Other nutrients 209
    8.5 Quantitative relationships 212
    8.6 Initial nutrients 220
    9 Trace metals and other minor elements 228
    9.1 Analytical considerations 228
    9.2 Various patterns of distribution 231
    9.3 Mercury, an interesting special case 243
    9.4 Speciation 249
    9.5 Iron, another special case 253
    9.6 Trace elements in sediments 257
    10 Radioactive clocks 261
    10.1 Radioactivity 262
    10.2 Radionuclides in seawater 267
    10.3 The uranium series 270
    10.4 Carbon-14 278
    11 Organic matter in the sea 287
    11.1 Historical note 288
    11.2 Primary production 289
    11.3 Other sources of organic matter 294
    11.4 Fate of the primary product 296
    11.5 Measurement of organic carbon in seawater 304
    11.6 Concentration and age of marine organic matter 305
    11.7 Nature of marine organic matter 308
    12 Anoxic marine environments 327
    12.1 Rates of oxygen consumption 327
    12.2 Anoxic oxidation 330
    12.3 The Black Sea 333
    13 Exchanges at the boundaries 342
    13.1 River input 343
    13.2 Air–sea exchange 345
    13.3 Hot rocks 347
    13.4 Sediment–water exchange 356
    13.5 Warm clay 361
    13.6 Residence times 365
    14 Chemical extraction of useful substances from the sea 368
    14.1 Salt 368
    14.2 Evaporation of seawater 370
    14.3 Rock salt 372
    14.4 Magnesium 374
    14.5 Bromine 375
    14.6 Gold 376
    14.7 Water 377
    15 Geochemical history of the oceans 379
    15.1 Illustrative rates 380
    15.2 Early history of the ocean volume 381
    15.3 Glacially caused changes in ocean volume 387
    15.4 Mass of salt in the ocean 387
    15.5 Composition of sea salt 389
    15.6 Oxygen 392
    15.7 Strontium isotopes 393
    15.8 The churning of the Earth 394
    Appendices 398
    A. The chemical elements 398
    B. Symbols, units, and nomenclature 403
    C. Physical properties of seawater 407
    D. Gases 417
    E. Carbon dioxide 433
    F. Dissociation constants and pH scales 444
    G. Solubility of calcium carbonate 453
    H. Effects of pressure 456
    I. Radioactive decay 459
    J. Geochemical reservoirs, and some rates 464
    K. Sound absorption 471
    Epilogue 472
    Glossary 476
    Questions for chapters 480
    References 488
    Index 521

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    Last edited by Motoko; 25th January 2014 at 06:15 PM. Reason: BY NOW PUB STAYS OFF.
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