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Thread: Environmental Design Guidelines for Low Crested Coastal Structures

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    Default Environmental Design Guidelines for Low Crested Coastal Structures

    Environmental Design Guidelines for Low Crested Coastal Structures
    by Hans F. Burcharth
    Stephen J. Hawkins
    Barbara Zanuttigh
    Alberto Lamberti




    Pages: 419
    Publisher:
    Edition: 1st, December 4, 2007
    Language: English
    ASIN: B0086QJXT4


    Description


    The effect of human activities is primarily local but can extend far away from the location of
    intervention. This underlines the importance of establishing coastal zone management plans covering
    large stretches of coastlines.
    The interaction of wave climate, beach erosion, beach defence, habitat changes and beach value,
    which clearly exists based on EC research experiences and particularly on results obtained by DELOS
    Project (www.delos.unibo.it) for Low Crested Structures (LCSs), suggests the necessity of integrated
    approaches and thus the relevance of design guidelines covering: structure stability and construction
    problems, hydro and morphodynamic effects, environmental effects (colonisation of the structure and
    water quality), societal and economic impacts (recreational benefits, swimming safety, beach quality).
    The present guidelines are specifically dedicated to LCSs to provide methodological tools both for
    the engineering design of structures and for prediction of performance and environmental impacts of
    such structures. It is anticipated that the guidelines will provide valuable inputs to coastal zone
    management plans.
    The target audience for this set of guidelines is consulting engineers or engineering officers and
    officials of local authorities dealing with coastal protection schemes. The guidelines are also of
    relevance in providing a briefing of current best practice for local and national planning authorities,
    statutory agencies and other stakeholders in the coastal zone. The guidelines have been drafted in a
    generic way to be appropriate throughout the European Union taking into regard current European
    Commission policy and directives to promote sustainable development and integrated coastal zone
    management.
    The guidelines are composed of three main parts.
    The first part (Chapters 1-10) contains the description of the design methodology, from the
    preliminary identification of design alternatives till the selection of the sustainable scheme and its
    construction.
    The second part presents:
    • the analysis of the performance of beach defences in DELOS study sites, which were selected to
    represent a variety of environmental conditions (Chapter 11);
    • the application of the proposed methodology to a real prototype case, in order to give a practical
    example to designers (Chapter 12).
    The third part contains all the formulae and tools to help engineers (Chapter 13), ecologists
    (Chapter 14) and economists (Chapter 15) during the design procedure.
    The effect of human activities is primarily local but can extend far away from the location of
    intervention. This underlines the importance of establishing coastal zone management plans covering
    large stretches of coastlines.
    The interaction of wave climate, beach erosion, beach defence, habitat changes and beach value,
    which clearly exists based on EC research experiences and particularly on results obtained by DELOS
    Project (www.delos.unibo.it) for Low Crested Structures (LCSs), suggests the necessity of integrated
    approaches and thus the relevance of design guidelines covering: structure stability and construction
    problems, hydro and morphodynamic effects, environmental effects (colonisation of the structure and
    water quality), societal and economic impacts (recreational benefits, swimming safety, beach quality).
    The present guidelines are specifically dedicated to LCSs to provide methodological tools both for
    the engineering design of structures and for prediction of performance and environmental impacts of
    such structures. It is anticipated that the guidelines will provide valuable inputs to coastal zone
    management plans.
    The target audience for this set of guidelines is consulting engineers or engineering officers and
    officials of local authorities dealing with coastal protection schemes. The guidelines are also of
    relevance in providing a briefing of current best practice for local and national planning authorities,
    statutory agencies and other stakeholders in the coastal zone. The guidelines have been drafted in a
    generic way to be appropriate throughout the European Union taking into regard current European
    Commission policy and directives to promote sustainable development and integrated coastal zone
    management.
    The guidelines are composed of three main parts.
    The first part (Chapters 1-10) contains the description of the design methodology, from the
    preliminary identification of design alternatives till the selection of the sustainable scheme and its
    construction.
    The second part presents:
    • the analysis of the performance of beach defences in DELOS study sites, which were selected to
    represent a variety of environmental conditions (Chapter 11);
    • the application of the proposed methodology to a real prototype case, in order to give a practical
    example to designers (Chapter 12).
    The third part contains all the formulae and tools to help engineers (Chapter 13), ecologists
    (Chapter 14) and economists (Chapter 15) during the design procedure.

    Contents

    Part I
    Guidelines
    1. Definition of LCSs covered by the guidelines .................................................. .................... 3
    2. Function of LCSs .................................................. .................................................. ................ 5
    2.1. LCSs interaction with waves, currents and sediment transport ....................................... 5
    2.2. Environmental considerations and consequences .................................................. .......... 8
    2.3. Socio-economic impact of LCSs .................................................. ................................... 10
    3. Objectives and target effects of LCSs .................................................. ................................. 11
    3.1. Protection of land and infrastructure by prevention or reduction of coastal erosion ....... 11
    3.2. Improvement of recreational conditions .................................................. ........................ 11
    3.3. Protect and minimise impacts on cultural and natural heritage of the coastline .............. 12
    3.4. Enhancement of natural living resources for food and recreation ................................... 13
    4. Outline of design procedure .................................................. ................................................. 15
    5. Initial considerations .................................................. .................................................. .......... 17
    5.1. Consideration of legal, physical, environmental, socio-economic and aesthetic con-
    straints .................................................. .................................................. .......................... 17
    5.1.1. Relevant policy and legislation .................................................. ............................ 17
    5.1.2. Physical constraints .................................................. .............................................. 20
    5.1.3. Ecological constraints (including ecosystems, natural heritage and living resources) 20
    5.1.4. Aesthetic constraints .................................................. ............................................ 21
    5.2. Definition of the primary objectives .................................................. .............................. 22
    5.2.1. Technical objectives .................................................. ............................................ 22
    5.2.2. Environmental objectives .................................................. .................................... 22
    5.2.3. Socio-economic objectives .................................................. .................................. 22
    5.3. Consideration of LCSs as a possible contribution to a functional and economical solution 23
    5.4. Consideration of project service lifetime and structure safety classification .................. 23
    5.5. Consideration of environmental context including ecosystem, natural heritage and
    natural resources .................................................. .................................................. .......... 24
    5.6. Synthesis of «Go/No Go» decision .................................................. ................................ 24
    6. Investigation of environmental conditions .................................................. ....................... 25
    6.1. Bathymetry and topography including seasonal and long-term variations .................... 25
    6.2. Geology including characterization of surface layers (sediments) ................................. 26
    6.3. Water level variations .................................................. .................................................. . 26
    6.4. Wave statistics .................................................. .................................................. ............ 27
    6.5. Current statistics including tidal, bathymetric and wave generated currents, residual
    large-scale currents .................................................. .................................................. ..... 28
    6.6. Wind statistics, solar exposure and precipitation .................................................. ......... 29
    6.7. Sediment transport by waves and wind .................................................. ........................ 29
    6.8. Sediment characteristics .................................................. ............................................... 30
    6.9. Hydrographic parameters including water quality .................................................. ....... 31
    6.10. Ecological conditions (ecosystem, habitat and species) ................................................. 31
    7. Conceptual/pre-design alternatives .................................................. .................................. 33
    7.1. Proposals for lay-out and cross sections of potential LCS schemes ............................... 33
    7.2. Preliminary estimation of morphological impact by the use of empirical diagrams, for-
    mulae or experience .................................................. .................................................. .... 35
    7.3. Structural safety of predesign .................................................. ....................................... 38
    7.4. Identification of environmental conditions for predesign .............................................. 39
    7.5. Structural design of LCSs based on material supply possibilities, formulae for stability,
    and semi-empirical information on scour .................................................. ..................... 40
    7.6. Assessment of environmental impacts (EIA) at local and regional scale ....................... 42
    7.7. Evaluation of the schemes based on economical optimisation ....................................... 43
    7.8. Socio-economic evaluation of the schemes .................................................. ................. 44
    7.9. Integration of technical, ecological and economic evaluation for selection of the
    sustainable scheme .................................................. .................................................. ..... 44
    8. Detailed design of preferred scheme .................................................. ................................ 47
    8.1. Optimization of lay-out and cross sections of LCSs based on short-term and long-term
    morphodynamic simulations .................................................. ......................................... 47
    8.2. Structural design by the use of formulae and model tests .............................................. 50
    8.3. Statement of socio-environmental impacts .................................................. ................... 50
    8.3.1. Impacts on soft-bottoms (habitats and associated biota) ...................................... 51
    8.3.2. Implications for hard-substrate assemblages .................................................. ...... 51
    8.3.3. Impacts on water quality .................................................. ...................................... 52
    8.3.4. Impacts on safety issues .................................................. ...................................... 52
    8.4. Design mitigation measures .................................................. .......................................... 52
    8.5. Identification of design options that maximise specific secondary management goals .... 54
    8.5.1. Tools to maximise recreational activities .................................................. ........... 54
    8.5.2. Tools to maximise diversity of species (e.g. for recreational or commercial
    purposes) .................................................. .................................................. .................... 55
    8.5.3. Tools for minimising growth of ephemeral green algae ....................................... 56
    8.6. Evaluation of initial and maintenance costs .................................................. ................. 56
    8.7. Formulation of monitoring programmes .................................................. ...................... 59
    8.8. Maintenance plan .................................................. .................................................. ........61
    9. Materials for LCSs .................................................. .................................................. ........... 63
    9.1. Natural rock .................................................. .................................................. ................ 63
    9.2. Concrete .................................................. .................................................. ...................... 64
    9.3. Geotextiles .................................................. .................................................. .................. 64
    9.4. Environmental considerations .................................................. ...................................... 65
    10. Construction of LCSs .................................................. .................................................. ....... 67
    10.1. Construction methods .................................................. .................................................. 67
    10.2. Environmental impacts during construction operations ................................................ 70
    Part II
    – Appendix –
    11. Case Studies .................................................. .................................................. .................... 73
    11.1. Elmer .................................................. .................................................. ..................... 73
    11.1.1. Introduction .................................................. .................................................. . 73
    11.1.2. The defence scheme .................................................. ...................................... 75
    11.1.3. Environmental setting .................................................. ................................... 77
    11.1.4. Environmental effects of Elmer defence scheme ........................................... 78
    11.1.5. Conclusions .................................................. .................................................. . 92
    11.2. Altafulla .................................................. .................................................. .................. 93
    11.2.1. Introduction and background .................................................. ........................ 93
    11.2.2. Description of the defence scheme .................................................. ............... 93
    11.2.3. Hydrodynamics and sediment regime .................................................. .......... 95
    11.2.4. Effects on hydrodynamics/sediment transport of the Altafulla LCS .............. 96
    11.2.5. Effects of the Altafulla LCS on the existing populations, colonisation and
    biodiversity .................................................. .................................................. . 100
    11.3. Pellestrina .................................................. .................................................. ............... 104
    11.3.1. The site .................................................. .................................................. ........ 104
    11.3.2. Environmental conditions .................................................. ............................. 104
    11.3.3. The defence scheme .................................................. ...................................... 106
    11.3.4. Currents induced by the composite intervention ............................................ 110
    11.3.5. Beach evolution after the composite intervention .......................................... 110
    11.3.6. Ecological effects induced by the composite interventions ............................ 111
    11.3.7. Economic relevance of beach defence .................................................. .......... 112
    11.3.8. Conclusions .................................................. .................................................. . 114
    11.4. Lido di Dante .................................................. .................................................. .......... 116
    11.4.1. The site .................................................. .................................................. ........ 116
    11.4.2. Environmental conditions .................................................. ............................. 116
    11.4.3. The defence scheme .................................................. ...................................... 118
    11.4.4. Currents induced by LCS .................................................. .............................. 120
    11.4.5. Beach evolution .................................................. ............................................ 120
    11.4.6. Ecological effects induced by LCSs .................................................. ............. 124
    11.4.7. Economic relevance of beach defence .................................................. .......... 127
    11.4.8. Conclusions .................................................. .................................................. . 128
    11.5. Ostia .................................................. .................................................. ..................... 128
    11.5.1. Introduction .................................................. .................................................. . 128
    11.5.2. The perched beach project .................................................. ............................ 129
    11.5.3. Monitoring programme .................................................. ................................. 130
    11.5.4. Analysis and observations on beach morphology and rock mound ............... 131
    11.5.5. Socio-economic investigations .................................................. ..................... 136
    11.5.6. Ecological aspects .................................................. ......................................... 136
    12. An example of environmental design of coastal defence ................................................ 137
    12.1. Preface .................................................. .................................................. .................... 137
    12.2. Initial considerations .................................................. ................................................. 137
    12.2.1. Relevant policy and legislation .................................................. ..................... 137
    12.2.2. EIA Constraints .................................................. ............................................ 139
    12.2.3. Definition of technical, environmental, and socio-economic objectives ........ 139
    12.2.4. Project service lifetime and safety classification ............................................ 139
    12.2.5. Consideration of environmental context .................................................. ....... 140
    12.2.6. Status, vulnerability, sensitivity and resilience of coastal ecosystem ............ 141
    12.3. Environmental conditions .................................................. ......................................... 142
    12.3.1. Bathymetry, topology and geology .................................................. ............... 142
    12.3.2. Wind and Wave climate .................................................. ................................ 143
    12.3.3. Currents .................................................. .................................................. ....... 144
    12.3.4. Water level .................................................. .................................................. .. 144
    12.3.5. Sediment transport by winds and waves .................................................. ....... 144
    12.3.6. Water quality .................................................. ................................................ 145
    12.3.7. Ecosystems, habitat and species .................................................. ................... 146
    12.4. Conceptual pre-design alternatives .................................................. ........................... 147
    12.4.1. Definition of local conditions and constraints ................................................ 147
    12.4.2. Identification of alternatives .................................................. ......................... 147
    12.4.3. Preliminary investigation of design alternatives ............................................. 148
    12.4.4. Structural design .................................................. ........................................... 155
    12.4.5. Analysis of waves, currents and sediment transport induced by each design
    alternative by means of 2DH numerical simulations ...................................... 157
    12.4.6. Construction costs .................................................. ......................................... 176
    12.4.7. Ecological comments to design alternatives .................................................. . 178
    12.4.8. Socio-economic comments to design alternatives .......................................... 182
    12.5. Selection of the sustainable scheme .................................................. ......................... 185
    12.6. Detailed design .................................................. .................................................. ....... 187
    12.6.1. Optimisation of functional design .................................................. ................ 187
    12.6.2. Structural design .................................................. ........................................... 188
    12.6.3. Verification of expected optimisations .................................................. ......... 194
    12.6.4. Maintenance plan .................................................. .......................................... 194
    12.6.5. Monitoring plan .................................................. ............................................ 198
    12.6.6. Recommendations for construction phase .................................................. .... 198
    12.7. Conclusions .................................................. .................................................. ............. 198
    Part III
    – Tools –
    13. Design tools related to engineering .................................................. ................................. 203
    13.1. Site condition parameters .................................................. ......................................... 203
    13.1.1. Bathymetry and morphology .................................................. ........................ 203
    13.1.2. Water levels, waves and currents .................................................. .................. 204
    13.1.3. Extreme events analysis .................................................. ................................ 207
    13.2. Transformation of waves from deep water to shallow water ..................................... 212
    13.2.1. Basic concepts .................................................. .............................................. 213
    13.2.2. Energy conservation .................................................. ..................................... 213
    13.2.3. Wave energy dissipation .................................................. ............................... 215
    13.2.4. Technical methods for irregular wave decay .................................................. 219
    13.2.5. Wave height distribution in shallow water .................................................. ... 220
    13.3. Wave transformation by structures .................................................. ........................... 223
    13.3.1. Wave transmission .................................................. ........................................ 224
    13.3.2. Wave reflection .................................................. ............................................. 231
    13.4. Hydrodynamic numerical models to predict local hydrodynamics in the vicinity of
    the structures .................................................. .................................................. ........... 233
    13.4.1. Introduction and concepts .................................................. ............................. 233
    13.4.2. Types of models and modelling .................................................. .................... 233
    13.4.3. Numerical modelling systems available for engineering applications ........... 237
    13.4.4. Flow modelling tools .................................................. .................................... 237
    13.4.5. Wave modelling tools .................................................. ................................... 245
    13.4.6. Fluid dynamics modelling tools .................................................. .................... 254
    13.4.7. Other modelling tools .................................................. ................................... 260
    13.5. Prediction of wave induced water flow over and through the structure, of set-up
    and rip-currents .................................................. .................................................. ....... 262
    13.5.1. Introduction .................................................. .................................................. . 262
    13.5.2. Wave mass flux, overtopping .................................................. ....................... 263
    13.5.3. Piling-up .................................................. .................................................. ..... 267
    13.5.4. Return-flows .................................................. ................................................. 273
    13.5.5. Verification of the circulation model .................................................. ............ 278
    13.6. Cross-shore equilibrium profile .................................................. ................................ 280
    13.6.1. Introduction .................................................. .................................................. . 280
    13.6.2. Perched beaches .................................................. ............................................ 281
    13.6.3. Reef-protected beaches .................................................. ................................. 282
    13.7. Cross-shore sediment transport .................................................. ................................. 284
    13.8. Long-shore sediment transport (amount and distribution over the coastal profile) .... 286
    13.9. Empirical diagrams/formulae for prediction of formation of salients and tombolos ..... 289
    13.9.1. Introduction .................................................. .................................................. . 289
    13.9.2. Proposed methodology for emerged breakwaters ........................................... 289
    13.9.3. Tombolo and salient prediction for emerged breakwaters ............................. 293
    13.9.4. Submerged breakwaters .................................................. ................................ 297
    13.10. Combined hydrodynamic and morphologic numerical models to predict short and
    long-term spatial and temporal effects .................................................. .................. 298
    13.10.1. Processes under simulation .................................................. .......................... 298
    13.10.2. Model classification .................................................. .................................... 299
    13.10.3. 2DH and Q3D models .................................................. ................................ 301
    13.10.4. One and multi-line models .................................................. .......................... 305
    13.11. Formulae for structural stability .................................................. .............................. 307
    13.11.1. Hydraulic armour layer stability .................................................. ................. 307
    13.11.2. Bedding layer and geotextiles .................................................. ..................... 321
    13.11.3. Toe berm stability .................................................. ....................................... 324
    13.11.4. Dimension of scour protection .................................................. .................... 326
    13.12. Model tests related to structure design .................................................. ................... 329
    13.13. Safety aspects .................................................. .................................................. ........ 330
    13.13.1. Limit states for maritime structures .................................................. ............ 330
    13.13.2. LCS limit states and failure modes .................................................. ............. 332
    14. Background knowledge and tools for prediction of ecological impacts ........................ 335
    14.1. Definitions of main factors influencing the distribution and abundance of species
    and assemblages (biotopes) on natural soft- and rocky bottoms ................................ 335
    14.1.1. Broad-scale – Geographic variation .................................................. .............. 335
    14.1.2. Mesoscale – Within coastline .................................................. ....................... 335
    14.1.3. Local scale – Major abiotic factors and processes .......................................... 337
    14.1.4. Local scale – Biological interactions and behaviour ...................................... 338
    14.1.5. Micro scale – Complexity .................................................. ............................. 339
    14.1.6. Human activities .................................................. ........................................... 339
    14.2. Tools for assessment of impacts .................................................. ............................... 341
    14.2.1. Rapid field assessment protocol for evaluation of ecological conditions of
    the proposed LCS .................................................. ......................................... 341
    14.2.2. Baseline ecological surveys .................................................. .......................... 343
    14.2.3. A biotope model for prediction of impacts on soft-bottoms ........................... 344
    15. Design tools related to socio-economics .................................................. .......................... 347
    15.1. General description of cost benefit analysis .................................................. ............. 347
    15.2. Classification of costs and benefits and inventory of coastal assets ........................... 348
    15.2.1. Principle of economic value and typology of values ...................................... 348
    15.2.2. Overview of the valuation techniques .................................................. .......... 349
    15.2.3. Typologies of coastal assets .................................................. .......................... 350
    15.2.4. Indicative values per type of coastal asset .................................................. .... 352
    15.3. Transfer of empirical values .................................................. ..................................... 354
    15.3.1. Data sets .................................................. .................................................. ...... 354
    15.3.2. Regression models and transfer .................................................. .................... 356
    15.4. Non-marketable recreational use value of a beach .................................................. ... 358
    15.4.1. Introduction .................................................. .................................................. . 358
    15.4.2. Methodology used for the Italian case-studies: the questionnaire .................. 359
    15.4.3. The use value according to seasons .................................................. .............. 360
    15.4.4. Use value for foreigners and aggregation level .............................................. 361
    15.4.5. Conclusions .................................................. .................................................. . 362
    15.5. The benefit of protection of land/hinterland .................................................. ............. 363
    15.5.1. Risk and Vulnerability .................................................. .................................. 363
    15.6. The value of habitat disruption .................................................. ................................. 366
    15.7. Options use and non-use values of a coastal cultural heritage ................................... 369
    15.7.1. Introduction .................................................. .................................................. . 369
    15.7.2. Aggregation level: the international community ............................................ 369
    15.7.3. The CVM questionnaire: the probability of paying ........................................ 370
    15.7.4. The option use and non-use values of visitors in Venice ............................... 370
    15.7.5. Conclusion .................................................. .................................................. .. 372
    15.8. Visitors preferences about beach defence techniques and beach materials ................ 372
    15.8.1. Introduction .................................................. .................................................. . 372
    15.8.2. Questions on kinds of defence structures and beach materials ....................... 372
    15.8.3. Conclusion .................................................. .................................................. .. 374
    References .................................................. .................................................. ............................. 375
    Index .................................................. .................................................. ................................... 397

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