by Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff, Ph.D.

Pages: 654
Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann
Edition: 1st, December 17, 2002
Language: English
ISBN: 0-7506-7498-9


This Handbook is an authoritative reference for process and plant engineers, water treatment plant operators and environmental consultants. Practical information is provided for application to the treatment of drinking water and to industrial and municipal wastewater. The author presents material for those concerned with meeting government regulations, reducing or avoiding fines for violations, and making cost-effective decisions while producing a high quality of water via physical, chemical, and thermal techniques.
Included in the texts are sidebar discussions, questions for thinking and discussing, recommended resources for the reader, and a comprehensive glossary.


Preface, vii
In Memory, ix
About the Author, x
Foreword, xi

Chapter 1
An Overview of Water and Wastewater Treatment, 1
Introduction, 1
What We Mean by Water Fíurification,4
The Clean Water Act, 26
Introducing the Physical Treatment Methods, 33
Introducing Chemical Treatment, 37
Energy Intensive Treatment Technologies 40
Water Treatment in General, 42
Some General Comments, 56
List of Abbreviations Used in this Chapter, 57
Recommended Resources for the Reader, 58
Questions for Thinking and Discussing 60

Chapter 2
What Filtration Is All About, 62
Introduction, 62
Terminology and Governing Equations, 63
Filtration Dynamics, 72
Wastewater Treatment Applications, 78
Key Words, 81
Nomenclature 86
Recommended Resources for the Reader, 87
Questions for Thinking and Discussing, 89

Chapter 3
Chemical Additives that Enhance Filtration, 91
Introduction, 91
Aluminum Based Chemical Additive Compounds, 91
Iron-Based Compounds, 97
Lime, 101
SodaAsh, 104
Liquid Caustic Soda, 105
Filter Aids, 106

Recommended Resources for the Reader, 120
Questions for Thinking and Discussing, 122

Chapter 4
Selecting the Right Filter Media, 123
Introduction, 123
Types of Filter Media to Choose From, 123
Rigid Filter Media, 132
General Properties of Loose and Granular Media, 142
Filter Media Selection Criteria, 148
Recommended Resources for the Reader, 152
Questions for Thinking and Discussing, 155

Chapter 5
What Pressure- and Cake-Filtration Are All About, 157
Introduction, 157
Constant Pressure Differential Filtration, 158
Constant-Rate Filtration, 168
Variable-Rate and -Pressure Filtration, 170
Constant-Pressure and -Rate Filtration, 172
Filter-Medium Filtration Formulas, 173
Cake Filtration Equipment, 184
Nomenclature, 213
Recommended Resources for the Reader, 214
Questions for Thinking and Discussing, 217

Chapter 6
Cartridge and Other Filters Worth Mentioning, 224
Introduction, 224
Cartridge Filters, 224
The Tilting Pan Filter, 228
The Table Filter, 23 1
Questions for Thinking and Discussing, 233

Chapter 7
What Sand Filtration is All About, 235
Introduction, 235
Water Treatment Plant Operations, 236
Granular Media Filtration, 243
Letís Take a Closer Look at Sand Filters, 247
Slow Sand Filtration, 256
Rapid Sand Filtration, 257
Chemical Mixing and Solids Contact Processes, 260
Recommended Resources for the Reader, 265

Questions for Thinking and Discussing, 266

Chapter 8
Sedimentation, Clarification, Flotation, and Coalescence, 268
Introduction, 268
Letís Look at How a Single Particle Behaves in a Suspension, 269
Gravity Sedimentation, 275
The Sedimentation Process in Greater Detail, 282
A Closer Look at Mechanical Clarification Process and the Chemistry of
Clarification, 305
Rectangular Sedimentation Tanks, 315
Air Flotation Systems, 317
Separation Using Coalescers, 323
Nomenclature, 326
Recommended Resources for the Reader, 328
Questions for Thinking and Discussing, 331

Chapter 9
Membrane Separation Technologies, 335
Introduction, 335
An Overview of Membrane Processes, 336
What Electrodialysis Is, 339
What Ultrafiltration Is, 344
What Microfiltration and Nanofiltration Are, 354
What Reverse Osmosis Is, 360
Recommended Resources for the Reader, 367
Questions for Thinking and Discussing, 370

Chapter 10
Ion Exchange and Carbon Adsorption, 372
Introduction, 372
Theory and Practice of Ion Exchange, 374
Carbon Adsorption in Water Treatment, 404
Some Final Comments on Both Technologies, 432
Recommended Resources for the Reader, 440
Questions for Thinking and Discussing, 444

Chapter 11
Water Sterilization Technologies, 446
Introduction, 446
What Waterborne Diseases Are, 446
Treatment Options Available to Us, 450
Ozonation, 454
Ultraviolet Radiation, 455
Electron Beam, 455
Biology of Aquatic Systems, 456
Disinfection by Chlorination, 463
Disinfection with Interhalogens and Halogen Mixtures, 476
Sterilization Using Ozone, 482

Chapter 12
Treating the Sludge, 496
Introduction, 496
What Sludge Is, 497
What Stabilization and Conditioning Mean, 501
Sludge Dewatering Operations, 520
Volume Reduction, 550
What Finally Happens to Sludge after Volume Reduction, 565
Final Comments and Evaluating Economics, 582
Recommended Resources for the Reader, 592
Questions for Thinking and Discussing, 594
Glossary, 601
Index, 631

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