Coastal Engineering: Processes, theory and design practice
by Dominic Reeve, Andrew Chadwick and Christopher Fleming



Pages: 490
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Group
Edition: 1st, January 2, 2004
Language: English
ISBN:0-203-64735-1

Description:

This text is based, in part, on modules in coastal processes and engineering developed
over several years in the Departments of Civil Engineering at the University of
Nottingham and the University of Plymouth. It is also influenced by the authors
combined experience of applying theory, mathematical and physical modelling to practical engineering design problems.
This book is not intended to be a research monograph nor a design manual,
although we hope that researchers and practitioners will find it of interest and a
useful reference source.The book is divided into nine chapters. A full references list is given towards the end
of the book and some additional sources of material are cited at the end of individual
chapters. A summary of elementary statistical definitions is included in Appendix A.
Appendix B provides a set of examples introducing the concepts and application of
the maximum likelihood method. An example output from a harmonic analysis
program is presented in Appendix C.

Contents:

1. Introduction
1.1 The historical context 1
1.2 The coastal environment 3
1.2.1 Context 3
1.2.2 Beach origins 3
1.2.3 Time and space scales 4
1.2.4 The action of waves on beaches 4
1.2.5 Coastal features 5
1.2.6 Natural bays and coastal cells 6
1.2.7 Coastal zone management principles 11
1.2.8 Coastal defence principles 12
1.3 Understanding coastal system behaviour 13
1.3.1 Introduction 13
1.3.2 Recognising shoreline types 14
1.3.3 Influences upon coastal behaviour 16
1.3.4 Generic questions 17
1.4 Scope 19

2. Wave theory
2.1 Introduction 21
2.2 Small-amplitude wave theory 24
2.2.1 Derivation of the Airy wave equations 24
2.2.2 Water particle velocities, accelerations
and paths 26
2.2.3 Pressure variation induced by wave motion 27
2.2.4 The influence of water depth on wave
characteristics 28
2.2.5 Group velocity and energy propagation 29
2.2.6 Radiation stress (momentum flux) theory 31
2.3 Wave transformation and attenuation processes 32
2.3.1 Refraction 32
2.3.2 Shoaling 34
2.3.3 Combined refraction and shoaling 36
2.3.4 Numerical solution of the wave dispersion
equation 38
2.3.5 Seabed friction 39
2.3.6 Wave–current interaction 40
2.3.7 The generalised refraction equations for numerical
solution techniques 42
2.3.8 The wave conservation equation in wave ray form 42
2.3.9 Wave conservation equation and wave energy
conservation equation in Cartesian coordinates 45
2.3.10 Wave reflection 45
2.3.11 Wave diffraction 49
2.3.12 Combined refraction and diffraction 52
2.4 Finite amplitude waves 53
2.5 Wave forces 54
2.6 Surf zone processes 56
2.6.1 A general description of the surf zone 56
2.6.2 Wave breaking 58
2.6.3 Wave set-down and set-up 61
2.6.4 Radiation stress components for oblique
waves 63
2.6.5 Longshore currents 63
2.6.6 Infragravity waves 66
Further reading 68

3. Design wave specification
3.1 Introduction 69
3.2 Short-term wave statistics 69
3.2.1 Time domain analysis 69
3.2.2 Frequency domain analysis 75
3.3 Directional wave spectra 78
3.4 Wave energy spectra, the JONSWAP spectrum 80
3.4.1 Bretschneider spectrum 82
3.4.2 Pierson–Moskowitz spectrum 83
3.4.3 JONSWAP spectrum 84
3.5 Swell waves 85
3.6 Prediction of deep-water waves 86
3.7 Prediction of nearshore waves 88
3.7.1 Point prediction of wind-generated waves 88
3.7.2 The SMB method 89
3.7.3 The JONSWAP method 90
3.7.4 Further modifications and automated
methods 91
3.8 The TMA spectrum 93
3.9 Numerical transformation of deep-water wave spectra 95
3.9.1 Spectral ray models 96
3.9.2 Mild-slope equation 97
3.9.3 Non-linear models 99
3.10 Long-term wave climate changes 100
Further reading 101

4. Coastal water level variations
4.1 Introduction 102
4.2 Astronomical tide generation 103
4.2.1 Diurnal inequality 106
4.2.2 Tidal species 107
4.2.3 Spring-neap tidal variation 108
4.2.4 Tidal ratio 109
4.3 Tide data 111
4.4 Harmonic analysis 113
4.5 Numerical prediction of tides 115
4.6 Theory of long-period waves 115
4.7 Tidal flow modelling 120
4.8 Storm surge 130
4.8.1 Basic storm surge equations 130
4.8.2 Numerical forecasting of storm surge 131
4.8.3 Oscillations in simple basins 133
4.9 Tsunamis 135
4.10 Long-term water level changes 137
4.10.1 Climatic fluctuations 137
4.10.2 Eustatic component 138
4.10.3 Isostatic component 139
4.10.4 Global climate change 139
Further reading 141

5. Coastal transport processes
5.1 Characteristics of coastal sediments 142
5.2 Sediment transport 143
5.2.1 Modes of transport 143
5.2.2 Description of the threshold of movement 145
5.2.3 Bedforms 146
5.2.4 Estimation of bed shear stress 147
5.2.5 The entrainment function (Shields parameter) 151
5.2.6 Bedload transport equations 154
5.2.7 A general description of the mechanics of
suspended sediment transport 156
5.2.8 Suspended sediment concentration under currents 160
5.2.9 Suspended sediment concentration under waves
and waves with currents 165
5.2.10 Total load transport formulae 166
5.2.11 Cross-shore transport on beaches 171
5.2.12 Longshore transport (‘littoral drift’) 172
5.2.13 Concluding notes on sediment transport 179
Further reading 179

6. Coastal morphology: analysis, modelling and prediction
6.1 Introduction 181
6.1.1 Baseline review 182
6.2 Beach profiles 185
6.2.1 Analysis of beach profile measurements 185
6.2.2 The empirical orthogonal function technique 185
6.2.3 Other methods 189
6.2.4 Equilibrium profiles and the depth of closure 191
6.2.5 Numerical prediction of beach profile response 192
6.3 Beach plan shape 198
6.3.1 Plan shape measurements 198
6.3.2 Equilibrium forms 200
6.3.3 Beach plan shape evolution equation 201
6.3.4 Analytical solutions 203
6.3.5 Numerical solutions 207
6.4 Nearshore morphology 212
6.4.1 Introduction 212
6.4.2 EOF methods for beaches and the nearshore
bathymetry 214
6.4.3 Combined wave, tide and sediment transport models 216
6.5 Long-term prediction 217
6.5.1 Limits on predictability 217
6.5.2 Probabilistic methods 223
6.5.3 Systems approach 227

7. Design reliability and risk
7.1 Design conditions 229
7.1.1 Introduction 229
7.1.2 Extreme values and return period 229
7.1.3 Distribution of extreme values 235
7.1.4 Calculation of marginal extremes 240
7.1.5 Dependence and joint probability 244
7.2 Reliability and risk 249
7.2.1 Risk assessment 249
7.2.2 Structures, damage mechanisms and modes
of failure 257
7.2.3 Assessing the reliability of structures 263
7.2.4 Level I methods 266
7.2.5 Level II methods 267
7.2.6 Level III methods 274
7.2.7 Accounting for dependence 277
7.2.8 Accounting for uncertainty 282

8. Field measurements and physical models
8.1 The need for field measurements and physical models 284
8.2 Field investigations 285
8.3 Theory of physical models 300
8.3.1 Generic model types 300
8.3.2 Similitude 300
8.4 Short-wave hydrodynamic models 303
8.5 Long-wave hydrodynamic models 305
8.6 Coastal sediment transport models 305

9. Conceptual and detailed design
9.1 The wider context of design 312
9.2 Coastal structures 318
9.2.1 Groynes 322
9.2.2 Shore-connected breakwaters 330
9.2.3 Detached breakwaters 337
9.2.4 Port and harbour breakwaters 342
9.2.5 Floating breakwaters 347
9.2.6 Sea walls 348
9.2.7 Sills 351
9.3 Natural coastal structures 353
9.3.1 Beach nourishment 354
9.3.2 Dune management 356
9.3.3 Tidal flats and marshes 359
9.4 Design guidance notes 360
9.4.1 Wave run-up 361
9.4.2 Wave overtopping and crest elevation 362
9.4.3 Armour slope stability 373
9.4.4 Crest and lee slope armour 389
9.4.5 Rock grading 390
9.4.6 Underlayers and internal stability 391
9.4.7 Crown walls 397
9.4.8 Scour and toe stability 398
9.4.9 Design of sea walls 406
9.4.10 Beach nourishment design 408
9.5 Design example 413

References
Appendix A Summary of statistical concepts and terminology
Appendix B Maximum likelihood estimation
Appendix C Harmonic analysis results Index


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