Handbook of Water and Wastewater Systems Protection
by Robert M. Clark, Simon Hakim, Avi Ostfeld



Pages: 544
Publisher:
Edition: 1st, September 10, 2011
Language: English
ISBN 10: 1461401887
ISBN 13:
978-1461401889

Description:

Following the events of 9/11, the Administrator of the US Environmental Protection Agency created the Water Protection Task Force (WPTF), which identified water and wastewater systems as a major area of vulnerability to deliberate attack. The WPTF suggested that there are steps that can be taken to reduce these vulnerabilities and to make it as difficult as possible for potential saboteurs to succeed. The WPTF recommended that be scrutinized with renewed vigor to secure water and wastewater systems against these possible threats. It also recommended that water and wastewater systems have a response plan in place in the event an act of terrorism occurs. The WPTF identified water distribution networks as an area of special vulnerability and highlighted the need for rapid on-line detection methods that are accurate and have a wide detection range. As a result of these recommendations novel technologies from various fields of science and engineering are now addressing water security issues and water and wastewater utilities are looking for innovative solutions. Once such technologies are available, there will be a rapid implementation process that will present many business opportunities for the private sector. However, in addition to terrorist threats water and wastewater systems are inherently vulnerable to natural disasters such as earthquakes and floods. This volume will address the problems associated with both intended terrorist attacks and natural disasters affecting water or wastewater systems. The book is divided into parts based on the kinds of threats facing water and wastewater systems: (1) a direct attack on water and wastewater infrastructure storage reservoirs, and distribution and collection networks; (2) a cyber attack disabling the functionality of the water and wastewater systems or taking over control of key components which might result in system failures; and (3) a deliberate chemical or biological contaminant injection at one of the water distribution system’s nodes. It will examine unique plans, technological and managerial innovations for protecting such systems, and includes descriptions of projects that were implemented to respond to natural disasters. Case studies are presented that discuss existing projects and evaluate their performance, with an emphasis on providing guidelines and techniques that can be implemented by water and wastewater planners and managers to deal with natural and manmade disasters should they occur.

Contents

1 Securing Water and Wastewater Systems: An Overview ...... 1
Robert M. Clark, Simon Hakim, and Avi Ostfeld

2 Water/Wastewater Infrastructure Security: Threats
and Vulnerabilities ........................... 27
Laurie J. Van Leuven

3 EPA Drinking Water Security Research Program .......... 47
Hiba S. Ernst, K. Scott Minamyer, and Kim R. Fox

4 Drinking Water Critical Infrastructure and Its Protection ..... 65
Rakesh Bahadur and William B. Samuels

5 Wastewater Critical Infrastructure Security and Protection .... 87
Rakesh Bahadur and William B. Samuels

6 Protecting Water and Wastewater Systems .............. 103
Randy G. Fischer

7 Spatial Distributed Risk Assessment for Urban Water
Infrastructure .............................. 119
Michael Möderl and W. Rauch

8 US Water and Wastewater Critical Infrastructure ......... 135
Robert M. Clark

9 Microbial Issues in Drinking Water Security ............. 151
Eugene W. Rice

10 Rapid Detection of Bacteria in Drinking Water
and Wastewater Treatment Plants .................. 163
Rolf A. Deininger, Jiyoung Lee, and Robert M. Clark

11 Chlorine Residual Management for Water Distribution
System Security ............................. 185
Jeanne M. VanBriesen, Shannon L. Isovitsch Parks,
Damian E. Helbling, and Stacia T. McCoy

12 Biosensors for the Detection of E. coli O157:H7 in Source
and Finished Drinking Water ..................... 205
Mark D. Burr, Andreas Nocker, and Anne K. Camper

13 Guidelines, Caveats, and Techniques for the Evaluation
of Water Quality Early Warning Systems .............. 229
Dan Kroll

14 Protecting Water and Wastewater Systems: Water
Distribution Systems Security Modeling ............... 247
Avi Ost fel d

15 Protecting Consumers from Contaminated Drinking Water
During Natural Disasters ....................... 265
Craig L. Patterson and Jeffrey Q. Adams

16 Cyber Security: Protecting Water and Wastewater
Infrastructure .............................. 285
Srinivas Panguluri, William Phillips, and Patrick Ellis

17 Real-World Case Studies for Sensor Network Design
of Drinking Water Contamination Warning Systems ........ 319
Regan Murray, Terra Haxton, William E. Hart,
and Cynthia A. Phillips

18 Enhanced Monitoring to Protect Distribution System
Water Quality .............................. 349
Zia Bukhari and Mark LeChevallier

19 Testing and Evaluation of Water Quality Event Detection
Algorithms ............................... 369
Sean A. McKenna, David B. Hart, Regan Murray, and Terra Haxton

20 Water Infrastructure Protection Against Intentional
Attacks: The Experience of Two European Research Projects ... 397
Cristiana Di Cristo, Angelo Leopardi, and Giovanni de Marinis

21 Utility of Supercomputers in Trace-Back Algorithms
for City-Sized Distribution Systems .................. 419
Hailiang Shen and Edward McBean

22 Water/Wastewater Infrastructure Security: A Multilayered
Security Approach ........................... 435
Laurie J. Van Leuven

23 Vulnerability of Water and Wastewater Infrastructure and
Its Protection from Acts of Terrorism: A Business Perspective ... 457
Dave Birkett, Jim Truscott, Helena Mala-Jetmarova,
and Andrew Barton

About the Editors .............................. 485

About the Principle Contributors ...................... 487

Name Index .................................. 497

Subject Index ................................. 501


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