Soil and Water Conservation for Productivity and Environmental Protection
by Frederick R. Troeh, J. Arthur Hobbs, Roy L. Donahue




Pages: 674
Publisher:Prentish Hall
Edition: 4th, May 17, 2004
Language: English
ISBN 10: 0130968072
ISBN 13: 978-0130968074


Description:

Written from an agronomic rather than an engineering perspective, this introduction to soil and water conservation explores a full range of topics and environmental issues, including some ignored or overlooked in other books on the subject. Comprehensive, up-to-date, and accessible, it considers the hazards posed by erosion, sedimentation, and pollution, and describes the techniques needed to conserve soil and maintain environmental quality. Situations and examples are drawn from many places to represent a cross-section of the soils, climates and cultures of the world, as well as the full scope of agricultural, engineering, mining, and other uses of the land. The volume covers conserving soil and water, soil erosion and civilization, geologic erosion and sedimentation, water erosion and sedimentation, wind erosion and deposition, predicting soil loss, soil surveys as a basis for land use planning, cropping systems, tillage practices for conservation, conservation structures, vegetating drastically disturbed areas, pastureland, rangeland, and forestland management, water conservation, soil drainage, irrigation and reclamation, soil pollution, water quality and pollution, economics of soil and water conservation, soil and water conservation agencies in the United States, and soil and water conservation around the world. For professionals that deal with soil and water conservation.

Contents:

1 Conserving Soil and Water 1
1–1 Needs Increasing with Time, 2
1–2 Erosion Problems, 3
1–3 Obstacles to Conservation, 7
1–4 Conservation Viewpoint, 9
1–5 Conservation Techniques, 10
1–6 Choosing Conservation Practices, 14
1–7 Caring for the Land, 16

Summary, 17

Questions, 18

References, 18

2 Soil Erosion and Civilization 20
2–1 Origin of Agriculture, 20
2–2 Erosion in the Cradle of Civilization, 21
2–3 Erosion in Mediterranean Lands, 22
2–4 Erosion in Europe, 25
2–5 Erosion in Russia and Associated Nations, 31
2–6 Erosion in Asia, 32
2–7 Erosion in the Americas, 35
2–8 Erosion in Australia, 39
2–9 Erosion in Africa, 39
2–10 Expanding Interest in Conservation, 42

Summary, 43

Questions, 43

References, 44

Geologic Erosion and Sedimentation
3–1 The Great Leveler, 46
3–2 Rock Types, 46
3–3 Processes that Elevate Land, 48
3–4 Landscape Development, 51
3–5 Sedimentary Landforms, 61
3–6 Mass Movement Deposits, 67
3–7 Glacial Landscapes, 68
3–8 Rate of Geologic Erosion, 68

Summary, 69

Questions, 71

References, 71

4 Water Erosion and Sedimentation
4–1 Types of Water Erosion, 73
4–2 Erosion Damage, 76
4–3 Agents Active in Water Erosion, 81
4–4 Soil Properties and Soil Erodibility, 90
4–5 Vegetation and Water Erosion, 93
4–6 Traffic and Water Erosion, 94
4–7 Water Erosion and Pollution, 94
4–8 Water Erosion and Sedimentation, 95
4–9 Principles of Water-Erosion Control, 96

Summary, 97

Questions, 97

References, 98

5Wind Erosion and Deposition
5–1 Types of Soil Movement, 101
5–2 Erosion Damage, 101
5–3 Erosiveness of Surface Wind, 107
5–4 Initiation of Soil Movement by Wind, 110
5–5 Wind and the Erosion Process, 112
5–6 Factors Affecting Wind Erosion, 114
5–7 Windbreaks and Shelterbelts, 119
5–8 Principles of Wind-Erosion Control, 125

Summary, 125

Questions, 126

References, 126

6 Predicting Soil Loss
6–1 Tolerable Soil Loss, 129
6–2 The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), 131
6–3 Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), 139
6–4 Computer-Based Soil Loss Prediction Models, 149
6–5 The Wind-Erosion Prediction Equation (WEQ), 154
6–6 Expanded Use of the Wind-Erosion Prediction Equation, 168
6–7 Revised Wind Erosion Equation (RWEQ), 171
6–8 The Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS), 172

Summary, 173

Questions, 174

References, 174

7 Soil Surveys as a Basis for Land Use Planning
7–1 Soil Surveys, 180
7–2 Soil Map Unit Interpretations, 186
7–3 Managing Land, 191
7–4 Land Use Planning, 196

Summary, 202

Questions, 203

References, 204

8 Cropping Systems
8–1 Plant Cover, 206
8–2 Managing Monocultures, 213
8–3 Crop Rotations, 217
8–4 Multiple Cropping, 223
8–5 Strip Cropping, 226
8–6 Evaluating Cropping Systems, 232

Summary, 237

Questions, 239

References, 239

9 Tillage Practices for Conservation
9–1 Objectives and Effects of Tillage, 242
9–2 Types of Tillage Implements, 245
9–3 Tillage, Crop Residue, and Soil Properties, 254
9–4 Flat Versus Ridged Tillage and Planting, 255
9–5 Conservation Tillage, 256
9–6 Deep Tillage, 267
9–7 Contour Cultivation, 270
9–8 Emergency Wind-Erosion Control, 275

Summary, 277

Questions, 278

References, 279

10 Conservation Structures
10–1 Terraces and Diversions, 282
10–2 Gully-Control Structures, 295
10–3 Road Ditches and Culverts, 300
10–4 Earthen Dams, 301
10–5 Streambank Protection, 305
10–6 Flood Control, 307
10–7 Wind Erosion-Control Structures, 311

Summary, 312

Questions, 313

References, 314

11 Vegetating Drastically Disturbed Areas
11–1 Construction Sites, 316
11–2 Mined Areas and Mine Spoils, 321
11–3 Areas of High Erosion Hazard, 328
11–4 Sand Dunes, 341
11–5 Disturbed Alpine and Arctic Sites, 345

Summary, 346

Questions, 347

References, 348

12 Pastureland, Rangeland, and Forestland Management
12–1 Pastureland, Rangeland, and Forestland, 350
12–2 Pastureland Management, 352
12–3 Rangeland Management, 356
12–4 Forestland Management, 362

Summary, 372

Questions, 374

References, 374

13 Water Conservation
13–1 The Water Cycle, 377
13–2 What Is Drought? 380
13–3 Combating Drought 382
13–4 What Happens to Rainfall? 382
13–5 Decreasing Runoff Losses, 385
13–6 Reducing Evaporation Losses, 394
13–7 Reducing Deep Percolation Losses, 397
13–8 Storing Water in Soil, 398
13–9 Efficient Use of Stored Soil Water, 402

Summary, 406

Questions, 407

References, 408

14 Soil Drainage
14–1 Value of Undrained Wetlands, 412
14–2 Occurrence of Wetlands, 413
14–3 Characteristics of Wet Soils, 416
14–4 Limitations Resulting from Wetness, 420
14–5 Water Removed by Drainage, 423
14–6 Surface Versus Subsurface Drainage, 426
14–7 Methods of Removing Water, 426
14–8 Random, Regular, and Interceptor Drains, 436
14–9 Design Factors for Drainage Systems, 436

Summary, 444

Questions, 444

References, 445

15 Irrigation and Reclamation
15–1 Effects of Irrigation, 448
15–2 Selecting Land for Irrigation, 452
15–3 Water for Irrigation, 453
15–4 Distributing Water, 462
15–5 Irrigation Methods, 467
15–6 Irrigation Frequency, 477
15–7 Land Reclamation, 478
15–8 Conservation Irrigation, 483

Summary, 486

Questions, 486

References, 487

16 Soil Pollution
16–1 Concern About Pollution, 490
16–2 Sources of Pollutants, 492
16–3 People-Related Wastes, 492
16–4 Industrial Wastes, 496
16–5 Agricultural Wastes, 498
16–6 Aerosols, 506
16–7 Polluted Soil, 507
16–8 Hazardous Sites and Soil Remediation, 515

Summary, 518

Questions, 519

References, 519

17 Water Quality and Pollution
17–1 The Earth’s Water Supply, 523
17–2 Water Pollutants, 527
17–3 Acidification of Water, 542
17–4 Groundwater Contamination, 544

Summary, 546

Questions, 547

References, 547

18 Economics of Soil and Water Conservation
18–1 Benefits from Soil and Water Conservation, 552
18–2 Costs of Conservation Practices, 561
18–3 Paying for Soil and Water Conservation, 567
18–4 Conservation Incentives, 570

Summary, 570

Questions, 571

References, 572

19 Soil and Water Conservation Agencies in the United States
19–1 Early Work on Soil and Water Conservation, 575
19–2 Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), 579
19–3 Conservation Districts, 587
19–4 Farm Service Agency (FSA), 588
19–5 Research, Education, and Economics, 590
19–6 Universities and Colleges, 590
19–7 U.S. Forest Service and State Forestry Agencies, 591
19–8 Other Federal Conservation Agencies, 593

Summary, 594

Questions, 595

References, 595

20 Soil and Water Conservation Around the World
20–1 Worldwide Needs for Soil and Water Conservation, 597
20–2 Transfer of Conservation Technology, 599
20–3 Food and Agriculture Organization, 600
20–4 Shifting Cultivation and Conservation, 600
20–5 Soil and Water Conservation in Selected Areas, 605
20–6 Only a Sampling, 617

Summary, 618

Questions, 619

References, 619

Appendix A—Conservation Factors 623

Appendix B—Common and Scientific Names of Plants

Mentioned in the Text 627

Index 641

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