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Thread: Biotechnology for waste and wastewater treatment

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    Default Biotechnology for waste and wastewater treatment

    BIOTECHNOLOGY FOR WASTE AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT
    by Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff



    Pages: 240
    Publisher: William Andrew
    Edition: 1st, January 14, 1998
    Language: English
    ISBN-10: 0815514093
    ISBN-13: 978-0815514091

    Description:

    This book examines the practices used or considered for biological treatment of water/waste-water and hazardous wastes. The technologies described involve conventional treatment processes, their variations, as well as future technologies found in current research. The book is intended for those seeking an overview to the biotechnological aspects of pollution engineering, and covers the major topics in this field. The book is divided into five major sections and references are provided for those who wish to dig deeper.

    This book is intended for people who want an overview of the biological treatment of water, wastewater, and hazardous waste. This volume examines conventional biological treatment processes, including activated sludge system, aerated lagoons, waste stabilization ponds, trickling filters, rotating biological contactors, packed beds, land farming, and anaerobic digestion. The volume also discusses variations of these treatment methods and recent research- The Hazardous Waste Consultant.

    CONTENTS:

    CHAPTER 1 . BIOTECHNOLOGY FOR INDUSTRIAL
    AND MUNICIPAL WASTES ........... 1


    Wastewater Treatment ................ 3
    BOD Removal ..................... 5
    Types of Biological Processes ........... 5
    Municipal Wastewater ................ 6
    Activated Sludge Process .............. 7
    Conventional (Plug Flow) Activated
    Sludge ...................... 10
    Tapered Aeration .................. 12
    Step Feed Aeration ................. 12
    Contact Stabilization ................ 12
    Complete Mix .................... 13
    Extended Aeration ................. 13
    Oxidation Ditch ................... 13
    Anaerobic Digestion ................ 15
    MUNICIPAL TREATMENT PLANT
    SLUDGES ....................... 18
    Desulfurization ................... 21
    Nitrification/Denitrification ............ 25
    Nitrification ...................... 27
    Suspended Growth Systems ........... 34
    Attached Growth Systems ............. 34
    Aquatics ....................... 35
    Concluding Remarks ................ 35
    ix
    x Contents

    CHAPTER 2 . BIOLOGICAL DEGRADATION OF
    HAZARDOUS WASTES ............. 37

    INTRODUCTION .................... 38
    ABIOTIC TREATMENT TECHNIQUES ..... 42
    Wastewater Treatment ............... 42
    Liquids-Solids Separation ............. 42
    Chemical Treatment ................ 43
    Physical Methods .................. 44
    Incineration ..................... 46
    Wet Air Oxidation ................. 48
    Solidification Techniques ............. 48
    BIOLOGICAL CONTROL METHODS ...... 49
    Land Treatment ................... 50
    Composting ...................... 51
    Liquids/Solids Treatment Systems (LSTS) . . 52
    Soil Biofilters .................... 54
    Wastewater Treatment ............... 55
    Activated Sludge Process ............. 56
    Trickling Over Process .............. 56
    Stabilization ..................... 57
    DETERMINATION OF BIOLOGICAL
    DEGRADABILITY .................. 57
    Basis for Biodegradation ............. 58
    Genetics ........................ 59
    Testing for Recalcitrance ............. 61
    Aerobic Tiered Testing .............. 62
    Anaerobic Tiered Testing ............. 63
    Testing for Recalcitrance ............. 63
    PILOT STUDIES .................... 66
    PCB Biodegradation ................ 66
    Methyl Ethyl Ketone ................ 69
    Landfill Leachate .................. 70
    LABORATORY STUDIES
    OF AEROBIC
    DEGRADATION .................... 71
    TCE Degradation .................. 71
    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon
    Ring Fission Products
    ............... 74
    Degradation .................... 73
    Phenanthrene Degradation ............ 78
    Contents xi
    Chlorophenol Degradation ............ 79
    Chlorinated Wastes ................. 80
    p-Nitrophenol Degradation ............ 80
    Degradation of Fluoro Substituted
    Benzenes
    ...................... 81
    Pentachlorophenol Degradation ......... 81
    Oil Degradation ................... 82
    HexachlorocyclohexaneDegradation ...... 83
    Aniline Degradation ................ 85
    Disulfide Removal ................. 86
    Metolachlor Degradation ............. 87
    Activated Sludge Studies ............. 87
    Polyphosphate Degrading Enzymes ....... 88
    Two Stage BiologicalKhemical Treatment
    of Leachate .................... 89
    ANAEROBIC BACTERIA .............. 90
    Metabolism ...................... 90
    Anaerobic Processes ................ 92
    Perchloroethylene .................. 93
    Coal Gasification Wastewater .......... 94
    Tannery Wastes ................... 94
    1.1. 1.Trichloroethane Degradation In-Situ . . 95
    Patent for Haloaromatic Compounds ...... 96
    2.4.Dichlorophenol ................. 96
    FUNGI ........................... 97
    Dioxin .......................... 97
    PAH Degradation .................. 98
    Selenium ....................... 99
    Immobilization of Phenolics ........... 99
    Metalaxyl Degradation ............... 99
    CONCLUSIONS .................... 100
    REFERENCES ..................... 101

    CHAPTER 3 . BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF
    INDUSTRIAL WASTES: MUTANT
    BACTERIA ..................... 111


    BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT .
    OVERVIEW ..................... 111
    MICROBIOLOGY BACKGROUND ....... 112
    xii Contents
    Energy and Carbon Sources .......... 112
    Type of Organisms ................ 114
    BACTERIAL GROWTH .............. 116
    Factors Affecting Growth ............ 116
    Temperature .................... 116
    pH .......................... 116
    Oxygen ....................... 117
    Nutrients ...................... 117
    KINETICS OF GROWTH .............. 117
    Growth Curve ................... 117
    Cultures ....................... 118
    Substrate Utilization ............... 119
    Continuous Treatment .............. 121
    INDUSTRIAL WASTE TREATMENT
    PROCESSES ..................... 122
    Aerated Processes ................. 123
    Activated Sludge (Suspended Growth) .... 127
    Aerated Lagoons ................. 129
    Waste Stabilization ................ 132
    Trickling Filter (Attached Growth) ...... 132
    Rotating Biological Contactors (RBC) .... 133
    Packed Beds .................... 133
    Landfarming .................... 134
    Anaerobic Digestion (Treatment) ....... 135
    MUTANT BACTERIA ............... 137
    Case Histories .................... 138
    Dissenting Opinions ............... 144
    REFERENCES ..................... 145

    CHAPTER 4 . NITRIFICATION AND DENITRIFICATION
    IN THE ACTIVATED SLUDGE
    PROCESS ...................... 151


    INTRODUCTION ................... 151
    FORMS OF NITROGEN .............. 152
    NITRIFYING BACTERIA ............. 153
    NITRIFICATION STOICHIOMETRY ...... 155
    NITRIFICATION PROCESS VARIABLES
    AND KINETICS
    .................. 156
    Ammonium Oxidation .............. 157
    Contents xiii
    Nitrite Oxidation ................. 158
    Solids Retention Time (SRT) ......... 158
    Effect of Temperature on Kinetics ...... 159
    Effect of
    pH on Kinetics ............ 160
    Effect of DO on Kinetics
    ............ 160
    Effect of Organic Loading on Kinetics
    .... 161
    Inhibition
    of Nitrification ............ 162
    DENITRIFICATION
    .................. 164
    DENITRIFYING BACTERIA
    ........... 164
    DENITRIFICATION STOICHIOMETRY
    .... 165
    DENITRIFICATION PROCESS VARIABLES
    AND KINETICS
    .................. 166
    Kinetics
    ...................... 166
    Effect
    of NO,. N Concentration on
    Effect of Temperature on Kinetics
    ...... 166
    Effect of pH on Kinetics
    ............ 167
    Effect of Carbon Concentration on
    Kinetics
    ...................... 167
    NITRIFICATION PROCESSES
    .......... 167
    Plug-Flow Versus Complete Mix
    ....... 167
    Single-Stage Versus Two-Stage Systems
    ... 168
    DENITRIFICATION PROCESSES
    ........ 170
    Denitrification Using Methanol as the
    Carbon Source
    ................. 170
    Denitrification Using Organic Matter
    Present in Raw Wastewater
    ......... 174
    Denitrification Using Thiosulfate and
    Sulfide
    ...................... 176
    SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ....... 177
    REFERENCES
    ..................... 184

    CHAPTER 5 .
    IN-SITU BIORECLAMATION OF
    CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER ... 189


    INTRODUCTION ................... 189
    TREATING CONTAMINATED
    GROUNDWATER
    ................. 193
    APPLICATION OF MODELING
    ......... 196
    SOC and NO.. Profiles ............. 196
    One-BAZ Columr
    ................ 198
    xiv Contents
    TWO-BAZ Column ................ 199
    Secondary Substrate Profiles
    .......... 204
    Carbon Tetrachloride
    .............. 204
    Bromoform. Ethylene Dibromide.
    Tetrachloroethene. and Trichloroethene
    . . 209
    Simulation
    of Bioreclamation Strategies ... 210
    CONCLUSIONS
    .................... 216

    REFERENCES ...................... 221

    Index ..................................... 225


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    Last edited by nektarios; 27th January 2014 at 05:28 PM.
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