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    Default Tracers in Hydrology

    Tracers in Hydrology
    by Christian Leibundgut, Piotr Maloszewski, Christoph Kulls



    Pages: 441
    Publisher: -
    Edition: 1st, December 14, 2009
    Language: English

    ISBN-10: 0470518855
    ISBN-13: 978-0470518854


    Description:

    Tracers in Hydrology and Water Research is a comprehensive overview of the application of natural and artificial tracers in hydrology and environmental research. Tracers have become a primary tool for process investigation, qualitative and quantitative system analysis and integrated resource management. This book will outline the fundamentals of the subject, and examine the latest research findings, clearly showing the entire process of tracer application through the inclusion of numerous integrated case studies. Taking a unique approach by providing the reader with a systematic and state of the art description of natural and artificial tracers, the book also covers key analytical techniques and applications, and modern tracer methods in the context of systematic hydrology.

    • Provides a comprehensive and systematic description of natural and artificial tracers, analytical techniques and applications

    • Presents modern tracer methods in the context of systematic hydrology
    • Covers the entire hydrological cycle of possible tracer applications
    • Describes major scientific progress and the latest advances in analytical techniques and their applications
    • Includes detailed case studies guiding the reader through the entire process of tracer studies in an integrated manner.

    Contents:

    Preface xiii

    Acknowledgements xv

    1 Introduction 1

    2 The Integrated Concept of Tracers in Hydrology 5
    2.1 System approach 5
    2.2 Definition of tracers 7
    2.3 Modelling in the context of integrated tracerhydrology 9
    2.4 Fields of application 12

    3 Environmental Tracers 13
    3.1 Introduction 13
    3.2 Stable isotopes of water 15
    3.2.1 Notation 15
    3.2.2 Fractionation 17
    3.2.3 The global distribution in rainfall 22
    3.2.3.1 Temperature effect 23
    3.2.3.2 Seasonal effect 24
    3.2.3.3 Altitude effect 25
    3.2.3.4 Continental effect 27
    3.2.3.5 Regionalization of isotopes in rainfall 29
    3.2.3.6 Evaporation 30
    3.3 Stable isotopes in soil 35
    3.3.1 Attenuation 35
    3.4 Stable isotopes in surface and groundwater 38
    3.4.1 Temporal variability of stable isotopes in runoff 38
    3.4.2 Temporal variability of stable isotopes in groundwater 39
    3.5 The use of environmental isotopes for hydrological system analysis 40
    3.6 Nitrogen isotopes and origin assignment 42
    3.7 Age dating 43
    3.7.1 Tritium 43
    3.7.2 Dating with gases (CFC, SF) 45
    3.7.2.1 Dating with other noble gases 50
    3.7.2.2 C-14 Dating 50

    4 Artificial Tracers 57
    4.1 Fluorescent tracers 59
    4.1.1 Basics of fluorescence 61
    4.1.1.1 Spectra 63
    4.1.2 Chemical and physical characteristics of dye tracers 65
    4.1.2.1 Solubility 66
    4.1.2.2 Fluorescence intensity – detection limit 67
    4.1.2.3 Effects of dependencies 69
    4.1.2.4 pH Dependence 70
    4.1.2.5 Temperature dependence 72
    4.1.2.6 Photolytic dependence 72
    4.1.2.7 Sorption processes 76
    4.1.2.8 Chemical and biological stability 84
    4.1.2.9 Toxicity and related environmental effects 86
    4.1.2.10 General assessment 86
    4.1.3 Measurement techniques 88
    4.1.3.1 Filter fluorometer 88
    4.1.3.2 Spectral fluorometer 89
    4.1.3.3 Synchronous scan technique 89
    4.1.3.4 Background signals and light scattering 94
    4.1.3.5 Fibre optic fluorometer (FOF) 96
    4.1.3.6 Field fluorometer for in situ measurements 97
    4.1.3.7 Laser measurement 99
    4.1.3.8 Advanced measurement techniques 100
    4.1.3.9 Long term sampling using active charcoal bags 100
    4.2 Salt tracers 102
    4.2.1 Chemical and physical characteristics of salts 102
    4.2.1.1 Sodium chloride (NaCl) 105
    4.2.1.2 Bromide (Br) 105
    4.2.1.3 Lithium 106
    4.2.1.4 Iodide 106
    4.2.2 Measurement techniques 107
    4.3 Drifting particles as tracers 107
    4.3.1 General characteristics of drifting particles 108
    4.3.1.1 Lycopodium spores 109
    4.3.1.2 Bacteria and bacteriophages (or phages) 109
    4.3.1.3 Fluorescent microspheres 111
    4.3.2 Measurement techniques and sampling of particle tracers 111
    4.3.2.1 Measurement 111
    4.3.2.2 Sampling 112
    4.4 Radioactive tracers 112
    4.4.1 Basics of radioactivity 112
    4.4.2 Characteristics of radioactive tracers 114
    4.4.2.1 Single-well technique 115
    4.5 Other tracers 115
    4.5.1 Fluorobenzoic acids (FBA) 115
    4.5.1.1 Suitability/potential applications 116
    4.5.2 Deuterium as an artificial tracer 117
    4.5.3 Dissolved gas tracers 118
    4.5.3.1 Common gas tracers and tracer characteristics 119
    4.5.3.2 Gas-specific methods – technical equipment 119
    4.5.3.3 Applications 120
    4.5.4 Nonfluorescent dyes 120
    4.5.4.1 Brilliant blue 122

    5 Mathematical Modelling of Experimental Data 123
    5.1 Artificial tracer (ideal) under saturated flow conditions 123
    5.1.1 Transport equations 123
    5.1.1.1 3D equations 123
    5.1.1.2 2D equations 126
    5.1.1.3 1D equations 127
    5.1.2 Solutions to the transport equations 127
    5.1.2.1 2D solution 128
    5.1.2.2 1D solution 130
    5.1.3 Estimation of the transport parameters 133
    5.1.3.1 Combined least squares method (LSQM) 133
    5.1.3.2 Method of moments (MM) 136
    5.1.3.3 The cumulative curve method (CCM) 137
    5.1.4 Artificial tracer experiments in multi-flow systems 140
    5.1.5 Experiments in double-porosity aquifers 144
    5.1.6 Examples 148
    5.1.6.1 Column experiment 148
    5.1.6.2 Combined pumping-tracer test 149
    5.1.6.3 Experiment in multi-flow system 151
    5.1.6.4 Experiment in double-porosity (fissured) medium 153
    5.2 Tracer experiments under unsaturated flow conditions 154
    5.3 Tracer experiments in streams and rivers 158
    5.4 Environmental tracer data 160
    5.4.1 Introduction 160
    5.4.2 The basic concept of lumped-parameter models 161
    5.4.2.1 Combined piston-flow diffusion model (SPFM) 165
    5.4.3 Selection of the model 166
    5.4.4 Examples 168
    5.4.4.1 Application of stable isotopes to bank filtration 168
    5.4.4.2 Application of tritium measurements in catchment areas 170
    5.4.5 Multi-cell approach and concluding remarks 172
    5.5 The goodness-of-fit of a model 174

    6 Technical Instructions 175
    6.1 Planning and execution of a tracer study 175
    6.1.1 Data collection and evaluation, field reconnaissance and mapping 176
    6.1.2 Choice of tracers and estimation of tracer mass 177
    6.1.3 Planning of studies and experiment execution in detail – creation
    of a schedule 178
    6.1.4 Risk management 179
    6.1.5 Consultation with authorities and formal application (legal process) 179
    6.1.6 Practical suggestions for experiment execution 180
    6.1.7 Requirements for an adequate groundwater sampling 181
    6.2 Estimation of tracer injection mass 182
    6.3 Gauging discharge 187
    6.3.1 Approach of dilution method 187
    6.3.2 Slug injection (integration method, gulp injection) 188
    6.3.3 Constant rate injection 190
    6.3.4 Requirements for tracers 191
    6.3.5 Salt dilution technique 193
    6.3.6 Characteristic example of a tracer dilution gauging in a brook (slug injection) 194
    6.4 Chloride method for groundwater recharge estimation 195
    6.5 Hydrograph separation using the end member mixing analysis (EMMA) 198

    7 Case Studies 201
    7.1 Groundwater 202
    7.1.1 Case study: ‘Estimation of groundwater origin, residence times, and recharge of Chad Aquifers in Nigeria’ 210
    7.1.1.1 Introduction and aim 210
    7.1.1.2 Description of test site 210
    7.1.1.3 Hydrogeology 210
    7.1.1.4 Methodology 212
    7.1.1.5 Results 213
    7.1.1.6 Interpretation 218
    7.1.2 Case study: ‘Vulnerability of a spring capture zone’ 218
    7.1.2.1 Introduction and aim 219
    7.1.2.2 Description of test site 219
    7.1.2.3 Methodology 219
    7.1.2.4 Results 220
    7.1.3 Case study: ‘Evaluation of aquifer parameters by single well techniques’ 221
    7.1.3.1 Single well experiment using radioactive isotope 82-Br 223
    7.1.3.2 Single well experiment with fluorescent tracers using fibre optic sensor 224
    7.1.3.3 Single well experiment with fluorescent tracers using online fluorometer 226
    7.2 Case studies in the unsaturated zone and in soils 229
    7.2.1 Specific aspects of using tracers in the unsaturated zone 230
    7.2.2 Case study: ‘Environmental deuterium transport through soils’ 232
    7.2.2.1 Introduction and aim 232
    7.2.2.2 Description of test site 233
    7.2.2.3 Modelling 233
    7.2.2.4 Results and conclusions 236
    7.2.3 Case study: ‘Determining the filtration capacity of soil-aquifer systems by multi tracer experiments’ 239
    7.2.3.1 Introduction 239
    7.2.3.2 Laboratory experiments 240
    7.2.3.3 Field experiments 242
    7.2.3.4 Assessment of results and methodology 244
    7.3 Surface water 246
    7.3.1 Lakes 247
    7.3.2 Rivers 248
    7.3.3 Specific aspects of using tracers in surface waters 250
    7.3.4 Case study: ‘Calibration of transport models using tracer techniques –River Rhine’ 252
    7.3.4.1 Introduction 252
    7.3.4.2 Methods 253
    7.3.4.3 Model conception to be calibrated and validated 255
    7.3.4.4 Method of resolution for river sections 256
    7.3.4.5 Tracer experiments 258
    7.3.4.6 Assessment of the experiments 272
    7.3.5 Case study: ‘On mixing of effluent inflow’ 273
    7.3.5.1 Introduction and aim 273
    7.3.5.2 Methodology 274
    7.3.5.3 Results 276
    7.3.6 Case study: ‘Estimation of hydrodynamics and transport parameters in Paiva Castro reservoir, Brazil’ 277
    7.3.6.1 Introduction and aims 277
    7.3.6.2 Methodology 278
    7.3.6.3 Measurements 278
    7.3.6.4 Mathematical modelling 279
    7.3.6.5 Results 279
    7.3.6.6 Conclusions 281
    7.3.7 Case study: ‘Investigation of internal dynamics and residence time
    in Lake Bled’ 282
    7.3.7.1 Introduction 282
    7.3.7.2 Tracer experiments 283
    7.3.7.3 Interpretation of the experiments 290
    7.3.7.4 Modelling 291
    7.3.7.5 Second study 1988–1991 – determination of residence time 292
    7.3.7.6 General assessment 299
    7.3.8 Case study: ‘Optimization of a sewage effluent into Lake Murten’ 299
    7.4 Glaciers 303
    7.4.1 Specific techniques of tracer experiments in glaciers 308
    7.4.2 Injection 308
    7.4.3 Sampling 309
    7.4.4 Analyses 310
    7.4.5 Case study: ‘Tracer experiments in temperate alpine glaciers – Findelen’ 310
    7.4.5.1 Summer experiments 1982 312
    7.4.5.2 Winter experiments 1984 318
    7.5 Catchment scale 321
    7.5.1 Case study: ‘Surface-groundwater interaction’ 325
    7.5.1.1 Introduction and aim 325
    7.5.1.2 Methodology 326
    7.5.1.3 Water level monitoring 326
    7.5.1.4 Stable isotopes 327
    7.5.1.5 Artificial tracer, SF 329
    7.5.1.6 Fluorescent dyes 330
    7.5.1.7 Conclusions 336
    7.5.2 Case study: ‘Runoff generation processes investigated using tracers’ 331
    7.5.2.1 Introduction and aim 331
    7.5.2.2 Description of test site 331
    7.5.2.3 Methodology 332
    7.5.2.4 Data 335
    7.5.2.5 Results and discussion 336
    7.5.2.6 Application of tracer results for model design and model validation 340
    7.5.2.7 Multi tracer experiments at hillslopes 342

    Colour Plate Section

    References 349

    Index 399

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    Last edited by nektarios; 27th January 2014 at 05:21 PM.
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