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Thread: Autonomic Nerve Function in the Vertebrates

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    Default Autonomic Nerve Function in the Vertebrates

    Autonomic Nerve Function in the Vertebrates
    by Stefan Nilsson

    Series: Zoophysiology (Volume 13)
    Pages: 253
    Publisher: ---
    Edition: 1st ed., 1983
    Language: English
    ISBN-10: 3642819761
    ISBN-13: 978-3-642-81976-6


    The intention of this book is to offer a comprehensive description and discussion of autonomic nerve function in the vertebrates from several points of view. Sections on anatomy, biochemistry of the transmitter substances and the structure, physiology and pharmacology of the different types of autonomic neurons have been included, together with chapters dealing with the autonomic nervous control of some organs and organ systems in the different vertebrate groups. Although knowledge in several of these areas is based primarily on studies of mammals, a certain emphasis has been placed on the autonomic nerve functions in the non-mammalian vertebrates to describe, from a comparative physiological point of view, the adaptations and possible "phylogenetic trends" in the development of the autonomic nerve functions in the vertebrates. It is very obvious that the literature created by the vigorous research activities within the fields of autonomic nervous anatomy, histochemistry, biochemistry, pharmacology and physiology is vast indeed, and not all aspects of the subject may have received fair treatment in the present volume.

    1 Introduction.- 1.1 The Comparative Approach.- 1.2 The Vertebrate Pedigree.- 1.3 Useful Reviews on the Autonomic Nervous System.- 2 Anatomy of the Vertebrate Autonomic Nervous Systems.- 2.1 Mammals.- 2.1.1 The Mammalian Spinal Autonomic System.- 2.1.2 The Mammalian Cranial Autonomic System.- 2.1.3 The Mammalian Enteric Nervous System.- 2.2 Cyclostomes.- 2.2.1 The Cyclostome Spinal Autonomic System.- 2.2.2 The Cyclostome Cranial Autonomic System.- 2.2.3 The Cyclostome Enteric Nervous System.- 2.3 Elasmobranchs.- 2.3.1 The Elasmobranch Spinal Autonomic System.- 2.3.2 The Elasmobranch Cranial Autonomic System.- 2.3.3 The Elasmobranch Enteric Nervous System.- 2.4 Teleosts.- 2.4.1 The Teleost Spinal Autonomic System.- 2.4.2 The Teleost Cranial Autonomic System.- 2.4.3 The Teleost Enteric Nervous System.- 2.5 Dipnoans.- 2.6 Amphibians.- 2.6.1 The Amphibian Spinal Autonomic System.- 2.6.2 The Amphibian Cranial Autonomic System.- 2.6.3 The Amphibian Enteric Nervous System.- 2.7 Reptiles.- 2.7.1 The Reptilian Spinal Autonomic System.- 2.7.2 The Reptilian Cranial Autonomic System.- 2.7.3 The Reptilian Enteric Nervous System.- 2.8 Birds.- 2.8.1 The Avian Spinal Autonomic System.- 2.8.2 The Avian Cranial Autonomic System.- 2.8.3 The Avian Enteric Nervous System.- 2.9 Conclusions.- 3 Neurotransmission.- 3.1 Transmitter Substances.- 3.2 The Autonomic Neuron.- 3.2.1 General Arrangement.- 3.2.2 Release of Transmitter.- 3.2.3 Axonal Transport.- 3.2.4 Presynaptic Receptor Systems (Auto-Receptors).- 3.2.5 Neurons with More Than One Transmitter.- 3.2.6 Adrenergic Neurons.- Synthesis of Catecholamines.- Neuronal Uptake of Catecholamines.- Metabolic Degradation of Catecholamines.- Histochemical Demonstration of Adrenergic Neurons.- 3.2.7 Cholinergic Neurons.- Histochemical Demonstration of Cholinergic Neurons.- 3.2.8 Purinergic Neurons.- Histochemical Demonstration of Purinergic Neurons.- 3.2.9 Serotonergic Neurons.- 3.2.10 Peptidergic Neurons.- 3.3 Conclusions.- 4 Receptors for Transmitter Substances.- 4.1 Drug-Receptor Interaction.- 4.1.1 Specificity and Selectivity.- 4.1.2 The “Dose-Response” Concept.- 4.1.3 The Theoretical Model for Drug-Receptor Interaction.- 4.1.4 Receptor Reserve.- 4.1.5 Affinity and Relative Intrinsic Activity.- 4.1.6 Competitive Antagonism.- 4.1.7 Non-Competitive Antagonism.- 4.1.8 Functional Interaction.- 4.1.9 Radio-Ligand Binding Studies.- 4.1.10 Stimulus-Effect Coupling.- 4.2 Classification of Receptors for Neurotransmitters.- 4.2.1 Adrenoceptors.- Subdivision of ?- and ?-Adrenoceptors.- The Adrenoceptor Interconversion Hypothesis.- 4.2.2 Cholinoceptors.- 4.2.3 Purinoceptors.- 4.2.4 Receptors for 5-Hydroxytryptamine (Serotonergic Receptors).- 5 Chemical Tools.- 5.1 Drugs That Affect Ion Permeability of Cell Membranes.- 5.2 Drugs That Affect Adrenergic Transmission.- 5.2.1 Synthesis.- 5.2.2 Storage.- 5.2.3 Chemical Sympathectomy.- 5.2.4 Release.- 5.2.5 Neuronal Uptake.- 5.2.6 Degradation.- 5.2.7 Adrenoceptor Agonists.- 5.2.8 Adrenoceptor Antagonists.- 5.3 Drugs That Affect Cholinergic Transmission.- 5.3.1 Release and Neuronal Uptake.- 5.3.2 Degradation.- 5.3.3 Cholinoceptor Agonists.- 5.3.4 Cholinoceptor Antagonists.- 5.4 Drugs That Affect Purinergic Transmission.- 5.4.1 Uptake and Degradation.- 5.4.2 Purinoceptor Agonists and Antagonists.- 5.5 Drugs That Affect Serotonergic Transmission.- 5.5.1 Uptake and Storage.- 5.5.2 5-HT Receptor Agonists and Antagonists.- 5.6 Drugs That Affect Peptidergic Transmission.- 6 Chromaffin Tissue.- 6.1 Histochemical Demonstration of Chromaffin Cells.- 6.2 Chromaffin Tissue in Mammals.- 6.2.1 Adrenal Medulla.- 6.2.2 Extra-Adrenal Chromaffin Cells.- 6.3 Chromaffin Tissue in Cyclostomes.- 6.4 Chromaffin Tissue in Elasmobranchs.- 6.5 Chromaffin Tissue in Teleosts.- 6.6 Chromaffin Tissue in Ganoids.- 6.7 Chromaffin Tissue in Dipnoans.- 6.8 Chromaffin Tissue in Amphibians.- 6.9 Chromaffin Tissue in Reptiles.- 6.10 Chromaffin Tissue in Birds.- 6.11 Conclusions.- 7 The Circulatory System.- 7.1 Cyclostomes.- 7.1.1 The Cyclostome Heart.- 7.1.2 The Cyclostome Vasculature.- 7.2 Elasmobranchs.- 7.2.1 The Elasmobranch Heart.- 7.2.2 The Elasmobranch Branchial Vasculature.- 7.2.3 The Elasmobranch Systemic Vasculature.- 7.3 Teleosts.- 7.3.1 The Teleost Heart.- 7.3.2 The Teleost Branchial Vasculature.- 7.3.3 The Teleost Systemic Vasculature.- 7.4 Ganoids.- 7.5 Dipnoans.- 7.6 Amphibians.- 7.6.1 The Amphibian Heart.- 7.6.2 The Amphibian Pulmonary Vasculature.- 7.6.3 The Amphibian Systemic Vasculature.- 7.7 Reptiles.- 7.7.1 The Reptilian Heart.- 7.7.2 The Reptilian Pulmonary Vasculature.- 7.7.3 The Reptilian Systemic Vasculature.- 7.8 Birds.- 7.8.1 The Avian Heart.- 7.8.2 The Avian Vasculature.- 7.9 Mammals.- 7.9.1 The Mammalian Heart.- 7.9.2 The Mammalian Vasculature.- 7.10 Conclusions.- 8 Spleen.- 8.1 Adrenergic Control.- 8.2 Cholinergic Control.- 9 The Alimentary Canal.- 9.1 Mammals.- 9.1.1 Structure of the Mammalian Alimentary Canal.- 9.1.2 Gastro-Intestinal Reflexes in Mammals.- Gastric Receptive Relaxation.- The Peristaltic Reflex.- The Vasodilatory Reflex.- 9.1.3 “Rebound Excitation”.- 9.1.4 Neurotransmitters in the Mammalian Enteric Nervous System.- Noradrenaline.- Acetylcholine.- Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP).- 5-Hydroxytryptamine (Serotonin).- Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP).- Substance P.- Somatostatin.- Enkephalin.- Other Peptides.- 9.2 Cyclostomes.- 9.3 Elasmobranchs.- 9.3.1 The Elasmobranch Stomach.- 9.3.2 The Elasmobranch Intestine.- 9.4 Teleosts.- 9.4.1 The Teleost Stomach.- 9.4.2 The Teleost Intestine.- 9.5 Amphibians.- 9.5.1 The Amphibian Stomach.- 9.5.2 The Amphibian Intestine.- 9.6 Reptiles.- 9.6.1 The Reptilian Stomach.- 9.6.2 The Reptilian Intestine.- 9.7 Birds.- 9.7.1 The Avian Oesophagus, Crop and Gizzard.- 9.7.2 The Avian Intestine.- 9.8 Conclusions.- 10 Swimbladder and Lung.- 10.1 The Teleost Swimbladder.- 10.1.1 Inflation of the Swimbladder.- 10.1.2 Deflation of the Swimbladder.- 10.2 Fish Lungs.- 10.3 Tetrapod Lungs.- 10.3.1 The Amphibian Lung.- 10.3.2 The Reptilian Lung.- 10.3.3 The Avian Lung.- 10.3.4 The Mammalian Lung.- 11 Urinary Bladder.- 11.1 The Teleost Urinary Bladder.- 11.2 The Amphibian Urinary Bladder.- 11.3 The Reptilian Urinary Bladder.- 11.4 The Mammalian Urinary Bladder.- 12 Iris.- 12.1 The Elasmobranch Iris.- 12.2 The Teleost Iris.- 12.3 The Amphibian Iris.- 12.4 The Reptilian Iris.- 12.5 The Avian Iris.- 12.6 The Mammalian Iris.- 13 Chromatophores.- 13.1 Teleost Chromatophores.- 13.2 Reptilian Chromatophores.- 14 Concluding Remarks.- References.

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    Last edited by Kruza; 13th November 2014 at 09:32 AM.
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