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Thread: Calcium in Muscle Activation: A Comparative Approach

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    Default Calcium in Muscle Activation: A Comparative Approach

    Calcium in Muscle Activation: A Comparative Approach
    by J. C. Rüegg

    Series: Zoophysiology (Volume 19)
    Pages: 300
    Publisher: ---
    Edition: 1st ed., 1986
    Language: English
    ISBN-10: 0387171177
    ISBN-13: 978-3-540-18278-8


    This book offers a comparative and interdisciplinary approach to excitation-contraction-coupling in smooth and striated mus­ cles, including the myocardium. It is an account of the path­ ways and mechanisms by which cellular calcium is handled and activates the contractile proteins. It also describes how these mechanisms are adapted in various kinds of muscle to meet specific functional requirements, such as speed or economy. This monograph then presents facts, ideas and theories and the evidence on which they are based, and ifit stimulates others and furthers research, it will have served its purpose. All of the chapters are self-contained and may be read in any order, but readers unfamiliar with muscle are recommended to start with the introductory chapter on excitation and contraction.

    1. Muscle Excitation and Contraction.- 1.1 Muscle Excitation.- 1.2 Electromechanical Coupling.- 1.2.1 The Role of Membrane Depolarization.- 1.2.2 The Importance of Calcium.- 1.3 The Contractile Process.- 1.3.1 Characteristics of Activation.- 1.3.2 The “Contractile” ATPase.- 1.3.3 Actin-Myosin Interaction in Muscle Contraction.- 1.3.4 The Cessation of Contraction: Relaxation.- 1.4 Summary.- 2. The Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: Storage and Release of Calcium.- 2.1 Inward Spread of Excitation in the Transverse System (T-System).- 2.1.1 Local Activation Experiments.- 2.1.2 Structure of the Transverse System.- 2.1.3 Conduction of Excitation in T-Tubules.- 2.2 Calcium Release from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR).- 2.2.1 Calcium Storage and Release Sites.- 2.2.2 Structure of T-SR Junction.- 2.2.3 Coupling of T-System and SR.- 2.2.4 Calcium Release from “Skinned Fibres”.- 2.3 Calcium Reuptake by the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum.- 2.3.1 Sarcoplasmic Reticulum in Fast and Slow Muscle.- 2.3.2 Fragmented Sarcoplasmic Reticulum.- 2.3.3 Mechanism of Calcium Transport.- 2.3.4 Regulation of Calcium Uptake.- 2.3.5 Supplementary Calcium-Sequestering Mechanisms.- 2.4 Summary.- 3. The Dependence of Muscle Contraction and Relaxation on the Intracellular Concentration of Free Calcium Ions.- 3.1 Crustacean Muscle.- 3.1.1 Microinjection Experiments.- 3.1.2 Determination of Ca2+ Concentration in Resting and Contracting Muscle with Calcium Electrodes.- 3.1.3 Calcixun Transients Determined by Aequorin.- 3.1.4 Calcium Transients: Comparative Aspects.- 3.1.5 Graded Activation.- 3.1.6 Ca2+ and Contraction of Skinned Fibres.- 3.1.7 Excitation-Contraction Coupling in Crustacean Muscle.- 3.2 Vertebrate Skeletal Muscle.- 3.2.1 Amphibian Tonic Fibres.- 3.2.2 Depolarization-Contraction Coupling in Twitch Fibres.- 3.2.3 Twitch Contraction.- 3.2.4 Twitch Superposition and Tetanus.- 3.2.5 Quantitative Estimation of Intracellular Calcium Ion Concentration During Twitch and Tetanus.- 3.2.6 Control of Force in Intact Twitch Muscle.- 3.2.7 Intracellular Free Calcium and Heat of Activation.- 3.2.8 Coordination of Metabolism and Contraction by the Intracellular Free Calcium Ion Concentration.- 3.3 Summary.- 4. Troponin, the On-Off Switch of Muscle Contraction in Striated Muscle.- 4.1 Structure and Function of Troponin.- 4.1.1 The Subunits of Troponin.- 4.1.2 Troponin-C is the Intracellular Calcium Receptor.- 4.1.3 The Calcium Signal Alters Thin-Filament Protein Interactions.- 4.2 Alterations of Thin Filaments Trigger Contraction.- 4.2.1 Calcium-Dependent Regulation of Actomyosin-ATPase.- 4.2.2 Regulation of Muscle Force, Stiffness and Shortening Velocity.- 4.2.3 Relation of Muscle Force and Calcium Occupancy of Troponin.- 4.3 Ancillary Calcium-Binding Proteins: Calmodulin and Parvalbumin.- 4.3.1 Is Parvalbumin a Soluble Relaxing Factor?.- 4.3.2 Calmodulin Stimulates Myosin Light-Chain Kinase.- 4.4 Summary.- 5. Diversity of Fast and Slow Striated Muscle.- 5.1 Vertebrate Tonic Muscle Fibres.- 5.1.1 Amphibian Slow Muscles.- 5.1.2 Avian Tonic Fibres.- 5.1.3 Fish Muscle.- 5.2 Comparison of Mammalian Fast- and Slow-Twitch Fibres.- 5.2.1 Diversity and Plasticity of Fibre Types.- 5.2.2 Differences in Excitation-Contraction Coupling.- 5.2.3 Shortening Velocity and Myosin Isozymes.- 5.2.4 Comparison with Other Muscles and Generalizations.- 5.3 Diversity of Crustacean Muscles.- 5.3.1 The Cell Membrane.- 5.3.2 Diversity of Sarcomere Structure and ATPase Activity.- 5.3.3 Internal Membrane Systems.- 5.3.4 Comparison with Other Arthropod Muscles.- 5.4 Insect Flight Muscle.- 5.4.1 Non-Fibrillar Muscle.- 5.4.2 Fibrillar Muscle.- 5.4.3 The Myofibrillar Origin of Myogenic Oscillation: Skinned-Fibre Studies.- 5.4.4 Stretch Activation.- 5.5 Obliquely Striated Muscle of Annelids and Nematodes.- 5.6 Summary and Conclusion.- 6. Myosin-Linked Regulation of Molluscan Muscle.- 6.1 Calcium Regulation in the Striated Adductor of the Scallop.- 6.1.1 Recognition of Myosin-Linked Regulation.- 6.1.2 The Role of Myosin Light Chains.- 6.1.3 Light-Chain-Dependent Calcium Binding and Contraction: Cooperativity.- 6.1.4 Light-Chain Location and Movement.- 6.1.5 Mechanism of ATPase Activation by Calcium.- 6.1.6 Comparison of Myosin- and Actin-Linked Regulation.- 6.2 Catch Muscles.- 6.2.1 Structural Features of Catch Muscle.- 6.2.2 Phasic and Tonic Contraction of the Anterior Byssus Retractor Muscle of Mytilus (ABRM).- 6.2.3 Analysis of Catch Regulation in Skinned Fibres — Role of Calcium and cAMP.- 6.2.4 A Biochemical Catch Mechanism.- 6.2.5 Comparison with Catch in Non-Molluscan Muscles.- 6.3 Summary.- 7. The Vertebrate Heart: Modulation of Calcium Control.- 7.1 Calcium-Transport Mechanisms.- 7.1.1 Calcium Sequestration by the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum and the Role of Mitochondria.- 7.1.2 Calcium Movements Across the Cell Membrane.- 7.2 Calcium Movements as the Link Between Excitation and Contraction.- 7.2.1 Action Potential and Calcium Entry.- 7.2.2 Activation of Myocardial Myofilaments of Lower Vertebrates by Transmembrane Sarcolemmal Calcium Influx.- 7.2.3 Calcium Release from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum During Contraction of Mammahan Hearts.- 7.2.4 Delayed Effects of Excitation on Contraction.- 7.3 Myoplasmic Free Calcium, a Major Determinant of Contractility.- 7.3.1 The Dependence of Force and Intracellular Calcium Transients on Extracellular Calcium Concentration.- 7.3.2 Toxins and Drugs Influencing Force and Intracellular Free Calcium.- 7.3.3 How Noradrenaline Increases Contractility.- 7.4 Alteration of Contractility by Changes in Calcium Responsiveness of Myofilaments.- 7.4.1 Calcium Desensitization of Myofilaments by Cyclic Nucleotides.- 7.4.2 Hypoxic Insufficiency.- 7.4.3 Frank-Starling Mechanism.- 7.4.4 Positive Inotropic Drugs as Calcium Sensitizers.- 7.4.5 Prolonged Ischemia and Cardiac Necrosis.- 7.5 Summary.- 8. Vertebrate Smooth Muscle.- 8.1 Contractile Mechanism.- 8.1.1 Organization of the Contractile Structure.- 8.1.2 The Crossbridge Cycle.- 8.1.3 The Proteins Associated with Contraction.- 8.2 Calcium Activation of the Contractile Apparatus.- 8.2.1 CalmoduHn and Myosin Light-Chain Kinase Activate Muscle Contraction.- 8.2.2 Myosin Phosphatase.- 8.2.3 A Futile Cycle of Myosin Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation May Regulate Smooth Muscle Contraction.- 8.2.4 Additional Protein Factors Involved in Smooth Muscle Activation.- 8.2.5 Phosphorylation-Contraction Coupling in Actomyosin Systems and Intact Smooth Muscle.- 8.2.6 Regulation of Contraction in Skinned Fibres.- 8.3 Regulation of the Intracellular Calcium Ion Concentration.- 8.3.1 Intracellular Free Calcium.- 8.3.2 The Relative Importance of Membrane Depolarization for Activation.- 8.3.3 Calcium Influx.- 8.3.4 Calcium Release from Intracellular Stores and Phosphoinositide Metabolism.- 8.3.5 Calcium Reuptake by the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum and Calcium Extrusion Through the Cell Membrane.- 8.4 Modulation of Calcium Activation by Cyclic Nucleotides.- 8.4.1 Mediation of Beta-Adrenergic Relaxation of Vascular Smooth Muscle by cAMP.- 8.4.2 The Mechanisms of cAMP-Mediated Relaxation.- 8.4.3 Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate (cGMP)- Mediated Relaxation.- 8.5 Summary and Conclusions.- 9. Principles of Calcium Signalling in Muscle.- 9.1 Senders of Calcium Signals.- 9.2. Transmission of Calcium Signals.- 9.3 Diversity of Calcium-Signal Receivers.- 9.4 Feedback Signals and Servoloops.- 10. Concluding Remarks and Future Prospects.- References.

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    Last edited by Kruza; 13th November 2014 at 09:18 AM.
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