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Thread: Magnetic Orientation in Animals

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    Default Magnetic Orientation in Animals

    Magnetic Orientation in Animals
    by R. Wiltschko, W. Wiltschko

    Series: Zoophysiology (Volume 33)
    Pages: 298
    Publisher: ---
    Edition: 1st ed., 1995
    Language: English
    ISBN-13: 978-3-642-79751-4


    1 Background.- 1 Magnetic Fields.- 1.1 The Magnetic Field of the Earth.- 1.1.1 The Vector Field.- 1.1.2 Spatial Distribution of the Geomagnetic Field.- Worldwide Gradients and the Non-dipole Field.- Magnetic Topography and Anomalies.- 1.1.3 Temporal Variations of the Magnetic Field.- Short-Term Variation.- Long-Term Variation.- 1.1.4 Man-Made Magnetic Noise.- 1.2 Magnetic Manipulations.- 1.2.1 Altering Magnetic Conditions.- Magnets and Shielding.- Coil Systems.- 1.2.2 Describing Magnetic Fields.- Measuring Direction and Intensity.- Carthesian and Polar Coordinates.- 1.2.3 Treatments Designed to Affect Magnetic Receptors.- 1.3 Summary.- 2 Orientation.- 2.1 Passive Responses Versus Active Behavior.- 2.1.1 Magnetotactic Bacteria.- 2.1.2 Orientation in Animals.- 2.2 Various Uses of Magnetic Information.- 2.2.1 Orientation Via an External Reference.- 2.2.2 The Role of Magnetic Cues.- 2.2.3 Demonstrating Compass Orientation.- 2.3 Analysis of Orientation Data.- 2.4 Summary.- 2 Directional Orientation.- 3 Magnetotaxis and Alignment Behaviors.- 3.1 Magnetotactic Orientation.- 3.2 Early Reports on Alignments in Insects.- 3.2.1 Alignments in Termites.- 3.2.2 Aligned Resting Positions of Diptera.- 3.2.3 Magnetic Alignments in Other Insects.- 3.3 Alignment Behaviors in Honeybees.- 3.3.1 Resting Positions.- 3.3.2 Prominent Directions of the Waggle Dance.- Zero Crossings of ‘Misdirection’.- Dancing on a Horizontal Comb.- 3.4 Alignment Behavior in Vertebrates.- 3.5 Biological Significance.- 3.6 Summary.- 4 Compass Orientation.- 4.1 The Magnetic Compass of Birds.- 4.1.1 Demonstrating Magnetic Orientation in Caged Migrants.- 4.1.2 Functional Characteristics.- Functional Range.- ‘Inclination Compass’.- Constant Magnetic Intensity Required.- Accuracy.- 4.1.3 The Magnetic Compass in Migratory Orientation.- A Widespread Mechanism Among Migrants.- Transequatorial Migrants.- Innate Information on the Migratory Direction.- 4.1.4 Magnetic Compass Orientation in Homing.- Locating the Home Course.- A Reference for Route Reversal.- 4.2 Magnetic Compass Orientation in Other Vertebrates.- 4.2.1 Fishes.- Eels (Anguillidae).- Salmons (Salmonidae).- Elasmobranchs.- 4.2.2 Amphibians.- Salamanders and Newts (Urodela).- Toads (Anura: Bufonidae).- 4.2.3 Reptiles.- Box Turtles (Testudines: Emydae).- Marine Turtles.- 4.2.4 Mammals.- Rodents (Rodentia).- Horses (Perissodactyla: Equidae).- Man (Primates: Hominidae).- The Technical Compass.- 4.3 Magnetic Compass Orientation in Invertebrates.- 4.3.1 Mollusks.- 4.3.2 Crustaceans.- Lobsters (Decapoda: Palinuridae).- Sandhoppers (Amphipoda: Talitridae).- Isopods (Isopoda).- 4.3.3 Insects.- Termites (Isoptera).- Ants, Wasps, and Bees (Hymenoptera).- Beetles (Coleoptera).- Flies (Diptera).- Butterflies and Moths (Lepidoptera).- 4.4 The Use of the Magnetic Field for Direction Finding.- 4.4.1 Different Types of Mechanisms.- 4.4.2 Biological Significance of Magnetic Compass Use.- Courses of Various Origin in Different Behaviors.- One Compass for All Tasks?.- 4.5 Summary.- 5 The Magnetic Compass as Component of a Multifactorial System.- 5.1 Orientation Based on Various Factors of Different Nature.- 5.1.1 Different Types of Orientation Cues.- 5.1.2 Celestial Compass Mechanisms.- 5.2 Homing and Migration of Birds.- 5.2.1 Interaction of Orientation Mechanisms in Homing.- Interaction of Sun Compass and Magnetic Compas.- Mechanisms Determining the Home Course.- A Model for Homing.- 5.2.2 Interaction of Various Cues in Migratory Orientation.- Realization of the Starting Course.- Interactions During Migration.- An Integrated System for Nocturnal Migration.- Day Migrants.- Changes in Migratory Direction.- 5.2.3 Maintaining Directions — Staying on Course.- Free-Flying Birds.- Cage Experiments.- Visual Help to Stay on Course.- 5.3 Migrations and Homing of Fishes and Amphibians.- 5.3.1 Orientation of Atlantic Eels (Gen. Anguilla).- The Life Cycle of Eels.- Preprogrammed Migration.- 5.3.2 Orientation of Salmons (Salmonidae).- Migration to the Nursery Lake.- Seaward Migration.- The Time at Sea and the Return to the Home Estuary.- Return to the Home Stream.- Population-Specific Migration Programs.- 5.3.3 Homing of Toads (Gen. Bufo).- Cues Used in Homing to the Breeding Pond.- Differences Between Species.- 5.4 Orientation at the Borderline Land-Sea.- 5.4.1 Orientation Factors Involved.- Compass Orientation.- The Origin of Landward and Seaward Tendencies.- A Multifactorial System.- 5.4.2 Relative Significance of Various Factors.- 5.5 The Role of the Magnetic Compass Compared to That of Other Cues.- 5.5.1 Control of the Direction of Movement.- Compass Orientation Versus Local Cues.- Magnetic Compass Versus Celestial Compass Mechanisms.- Maintaining a Course.- 5.5.2 The Magnetic Field as a Directional Reference.- Genetically Encoded Courses.- Acquired Courses and Learning Processes.- 5.6 Summary.- 3 Non-Compass Responses.- 6 Non-Compass Orientation by the Magnetic Field.- 6.1 Magnetic Components in Navigational ‘Maps’.- 6.1.1 Magnetic Parameters in the ‘Map’ of Homing Pigeons.- Behavior at Magnetic Anomalies.- Effects Associated with Temporal Changes in the Magnetic Field.- Experimental Manipulations.- 6.1.2 An Assessment of the Role of Magnetic Factors in the Avian ‘Map’.- Variability.- Effects on Homing.- Open Questions about ‘Map’ Effects.- Significance of Magnetic ‘Map’ Effects.- 6.1.3 Magnetic ‘Map’ Factors in the Orientation of Other Vertebrates.- 6.2 Orientation Along the Magnetic Relief.- 6.2.1 The Migration of Cetaceans.- Evidence from Strandings and Sightings.- Following the Relief as Navigational Strategy.- 6.2.2 Orientation of Sharks Near Seamounts.- 6.2.3 The Relief Hypothesis: Problems and Open Questions.- 6.3 Magnetic Parameters Controlling the Routes of Extended Migrations.- 6.3.1 Magnetic Conditions Acting as Triggers During Bird Migration.- 6.3.2 Control of Oceanic Migration in Young Sea Turtles.- 6.3.3 Immediate Control of the Migration Route.- 6.4 Theoretical Considerations.- 6.4.1 What Factors Are Used?.- 6.4.2 Variability and the Detection of Minute Differences.- Spatial Variability.- Temporal Variations.- 6.4.3 Hypotheses with Open Questions.- 6.5 Summary.- 7 Other Non-Compass Effects Associated with Magnetic Fields.- 7.1 Effects Associated with Temporal Variations of the Geomagnetic Field.- 7.1.1 ‘Misdirection’ in the Waggle Dance of Honeybees.- Curves of ‘Misdirection’ Recorded in the Geomagnetic Field.- ‘Misdirection’ in Magnetic Fields of Various Intensities.- Problems and Open Questions.- Other Phenomena Associated with the Waggle Dance.- 7.1.2 Interference with Biological Rhythms.- Breakdown of Rhythmicity Caused by Magnetic Manipulations.- Rhythmicity Based on Periodic Changes in Magnetic Intensity.- Magnetic Variations as Zeitgeber?.- 7.1.3 Effects of K-Variation and Magnetic Storms.- 7.2 Effects of Transmitters, Radar Stations, etc. on Bird Orientation.- 7.2.1 Migrating Birds.- 7.2.2 Homing Pigeons.- 7.3 Responses to Experimentally Induced Magnetic Changes.- 7.3.1 Invertebrates.- 7.3.2 Vertebrates.- 7.4 Summary.- 4 Perception of Magnetic Fields.- 8 Conditioning Experiments.- 8.1 Cardiac Conditioning.- 8.2 Operant Conditioning.- 8.2.1 Directional Training.- 8.2.2 Discrimination of Two Alternatives.- Arthropods.- Vertebrates.- 8.3 Principal Differences Between Magnetic and Other Stimuli.- 8.3.1 Orientation Mechanisms in Training Experiments.- 8.3.2 Constraints of Learning.- 8.3.3 A Factor Containing Directional Information.- 8.4 Summary.- 9 Obtaining Magnetic Information.- 9.1 Perception Based on Induction.- 9.1.1 Voltage Gradients Perceived by Electroreceptors.- 9.1.2 Electrophysiological Recordings from the Lateralis System.- 9.1.3 A Special Mechanism of Some Marine Vertebrates.- 9.2 Perception Via Photopigments.- 9.2.1 Excited Triplet State Macromolecules as Transducers.- The Resonance Model.- A ‘Chemical Compass’ Based on Biradicals.- 9.2.2 Electrophysiological Recordings from the Visual System.- 9.2.3 Behavioral Tests for Light-Dependent Orientation Responses.- Orientation in the Absence of Light.- Orientation Under Light of Various Wavelengths.- Two Patterns of Responses.- 9.2.4 Compass Information from the Retina?.- 9.3 Perception Based on Ferromagnetic Particles.- 9.3.1 Magnetite Particles as Transducers.- The Magnetic Properties of Magnetite Particles.- Magnetic Material Is Widespread Among Animals.- Search for Magnetite in Insects.- Magnetite Found in the Head of Vertebrates.- Receptors.- 9.3.2 Electrophysiological Recordings.- Recordings from the Ophthalmic Nerve in Vertebrates.- Recordings from Honeybees.- 9.3.3 Treatments Designed to Affect Magnetite-based Receptors.- Honeybees.- Homing Birds.- Migrating Birds.- The Interpretation of Behavioral Findings.- 9.3.4 Receptors Based on Magnetite Particles.- Is the ‘Map’ Involved?.- Single Domains or Superparamagnetic Particles?.- Open Questions.- 9.4 Magnetoreception in the Light of the Available Evidence.- 9.4.1 Open Questions About Transducers.- 9.4.2 Evolutionary Considerations.- 9.5 Other Electrophysiological Responses to Magnetic Stimuli.- 9.5.1. Recordings from Vertebrates.- 9.5.2 Recordings from Invertebrates.- 9.6 Summary.- 5 Outlook.- 10 Research on Magnetic Phenomena in Biology.- 10.1 Slow Acceptance of Magnetic Orientation.- 10.2 Present and Future Research.- 10.2.1 Bioelectromagnetic Research.- 10.2.2 Magnetoreception and Magnetic Orientation.- References.- Taxonomic Index of Animal Species

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    Last edited by Kruza; 12th November 2014 at 05:45 PM.
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