Bird Keeping as a Source of Lung Cancer and Other Human Diseases: A Need for Higher Hygienic Standards
by Peter A.I. Holst
Edition: 1st ed., 1991
Birdkeeping is becoming increasingly popular, but could it threaten good health? This book discusses the evidence suggesting that keeping pet birds is a strong risk factor for lung cancer. Its relation to a number of other endpoints, including death before age 60 and spontaneous abortion, is also examined. In addition, the book looks at the diseases that can be transmitted from birds to man - a fairly unknown field in general medicine. For instance, birds are a source of airborne particles that can cause allergic reactions in humans. People who keep birds as pets tend to have a higher incidence of shortness of breath, colds, sore throats and other flu-like symptoms than those in households without birds. The evidence presented in this book is the result of a ten-year general practice survey. Some recommendations for future research are given.
Table of contents
1 All About Pet Birds.- 1.1 Bird Keeping as an Increasingly Popular Pastime.- 1.1.1 Reasons for Keeping Pet Birds.- 1.1.2 Number of Pet Animals in the Netherlands in 1984.- 1.1.3 Bird Breeders in the Netherlands in 1984.- 1.1.4 Hygiene Among Bird Keepers.- 1.2 Birds as a Source of Pollution.- 1.2.1 Introduction.- 1.2.2 What Can Go Wrong in Caring for Pet Birds?.- 1.2.3 Contribution of Pet Birds to Biological Pollution.- 1.3 Infectious Diseases of Pet Birds That Can Be Transmitted.- 1.3.1 Introduction.- 1.3.2 Parrot Disease (Psittacosis).- 1.3.3 Newcastle Disease Virus Conjunctivitis.- 1.3.4 Inflammation of the Stomach and Intestine Due to Salmonella typhimurium.- 1.3.5 Enteritis Caused by Yersiniae.- 1.3.6 Pasteurellosis.- 1.3.7 Streptococcus and Staphylococcus Skin Infections.- 1.3.8 Erysipeloid.- 1.3.9 Mould Infections.- 1.3.10 Toxoplasmosis.- 1.3.11 Mycoplasma Pneumoniae.- 1.3.12 Mycobacterium Avium.- 1.3.13 Arbovirus Encephalitis.- 1.4 Allergic Diseases That Can Be Caused by Pet Birds.- 1.4.1 Introduction.- 1.4.2 Allergic Rhinitis and Nasal Polyps.- 1.4.3 Allergic Asthma.- 1.4.4 Allergic Alveolitis.- 1.4.5 Granulomas and Irreversible Lung Fibrosis.- 2 Survey of Patients in General Practice.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Methods.- 2.3 Results.- 2.3.1 Distribution of Risk Factors Among the General Practice Population.- 2.3.2 Mortality Before Age 60.- 2.3.3 Malignant Tumour Incidence.- 2.3.4 Nasal Polyps.- 2.3.5 Problems of Pregnancy.- 2.3.6 Infertility.- 2.3.7 Further Statistical Tests.- 2.4 Discussion.- 3 Hospital Case-Control Study of Lung Cancer and Bird Keeping.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Methods.- 3.3 Results.- 3.4 Discussion.- 4 Dust Measurement Study.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Methods.- 4.3 Results.- 4.4 Discussion.- 5 Other Evidence on Bird Keeping and Lung Cancer.- 6 Discussion of the Relationship Between Bird Keeping and Lung Cancer.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Mechanisms by Which Bird Keeping May Cause Lung Cancer.- 6.2.1 Bioaerosol-Related Allergic and Infectious Diseases.- 6.2.2 Biological Factors Spread by Birds and Their Possible Relationship to Tumour Development.- 6.2.3 Local Immune Deficiency Syndrome.- 6.3 Causes of Lung Cancer and their Relative Importance.- 6.3.1 Smoking.- 6.3.2 Occupation.- 6.3.3 Nutrition.- 6.3.4 Pet Birds.- 6.4 Conclusions and Recommendations for Further Research.- Appendix A Interpreting Data From Epidemiological Studies.- Appendix B Some Investigative Methods.- Appendix C Case Histories of the 22 Couples with Infertility Tests in the General Practice Survey.- Appendix D Steps to Prevent the Formation of Bioaerosols from Pet Birds.- References.