Behavioral Flexibility in Primates. Causes and Consequences
(Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects Series)
by Clara B. Jones, Russell H. Tuttle (Editor)
Edition: 1st., 2005
Series: Developments in Primatology Series
Behavioral Flexibility in Primates: Causes and Consequences proposes that genetic conflicts of interest are ubiquitous in primates who may employ force, coercion, persuasion, persistence, scrambles, cooperation, exploitation, manipulation, social parasitism, dispersal or spite to resolve or manage them. Where one individual or group imposes severe costs to inclusive fitness or to the phenotype upon another individual, the latter may adopt a counterstrategy in an attempt to minimize its own costs. Counterstrategies may, in turn, impose costs upon the original actor(s), and so on, possibly yielding an evolutionary "chase" ("interlocus contest evolution"). The evolution of phenotypic plasticity in primates may often pertain to attempts to mitigate genetic conflicts of interest, and classic work in behavioral ecology leads to the conclusion that for females ("energy-maximizers"), conflict will pertain primarily to competition for food (that can be converted to offspring) while,for males ("time-minimizers"), conflict will pertain primarily to competition for mates. These related and novel perspectives are developed in this new volume.