Endemic Species Distributions On The East Slope Of The Andes In Peru And Bolivia


Endemic Species Distributions On The East Slope Of The Andes In Peru And Bolivia Summary:</STRONG>


Bruce E. Young (Editor)
  • Publisher: NatureServe
  • Number Of Pages: 91
  • ISBN-10 / ASIN: 0971105367
  • ISBN-13 / EAN: 9780971105362
  • Publication Date: 2007-07-06
  • Binding: Paperback
  • Subjects: Science / Endangered Species / Biology / Ecology / Conservation
Product Description: To provide comprehensive input to conservation planning, we mapped the distributions of endemic plants and animals in a study area encompassing roughly the Amazonian slope below line in Peru and Bolivia. We used Maxent as an inductive method of predictive distribution modeling where possible and deductive methods of the remaining species. These distribution models facilitated the prediction of distributions even in areas where field surveys have not taken place, avoiding to some extent a bias caused by the uneven distribution of collecting effort. The environmental data that formed the base of the models included climate variables, elevation and topographical data, and vegetation indices derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images. Data from over 7,150 unique localities contributed to producing distribution for 782 species endemic to the study area. The species included all members of 15 vascular plant or genera and all amphibians, mammals, and birds endemic to the study area. We selected the plant groups based on the evenness and currency of taxonomic understanding and the diversity of life forms, elevation, and habitats represented. The results show distinct areas of endemism for each of the eighteen taxonomic groups studied. Three plant groups (Chrysobalanaceae, Inga, and Malpighiaceae) showed endemism in the lowlands, amphibians and Acanthaceae showed peaks of endemism at mid elevations, and birds, mammals, and nine plant groups had endemism peaks at high elevations above 2,000 m. Two plant families, Anacardiaceae and Cyatheaceae, did not have significant overlap of endemic species. The plant groups varied significantly in the geographical location of endemic peaks from the northern to the southern limits of the study area. Amphibians showed a major diversity peak in central Cochabamba Department, Bolivia. However, summed irreplaceability analysis revealed the existence of equally important areas in Amazonas and San Martín Departments in northern Peru where large numbers of microendemic species occurred. Richness of endemic species of mammals was highest in long band at high-elevations in the Andes from Cusco, Peru, to Cochabamba, Bolivia. Summed irreplaceability analysis also highlighted the importance of the region of the La Libertad-San Martín departmental border in the Cordillera Central as being important for narrowranging endemics. Bird endemism peaked in six areas ranging from the Carpish Hills region of Huanuco Department, Peru, to the Cordillera de Cocapata- Tiraque in Cochabamba, Bolivia. Although birds have been the subject of numerous previous analyses of endemism in the Andes, our predictive modeling methods identified two previously unrecognized areas—the western Cordillera de Vilcabamba and the region along the Río Mapacho-Yavero east of Cusco, both in Peru. Although these two localities have been poorly explored ornithologically, the models predicted that many endemic species occur in both places. Taken together, the target taxonomic groups displayed 12 areas of endemism where at least one group exhibited a peak. The cordilleras near La Paz, Bolivia, had the greatest cross-group endemism. Eight plant groups as well as birds and mammals all have concentrations of endemic species there. National protected areas covered at least portions of nine of the 12 areas of endemism. Nevertheless, large segments of the areas of endemism identified in our analysis are currently unprotected at the national level Contents: Cover Title Page Copyright Table of Contents I. Summary II. Introduction Importance of Endemics to Conservation Definitions of Endemism Modeling Distributions Study Objectives and Significance III. Study Area Geographical Limits Major Ecoregions and Habitats Significance for Conservation Identifying Species that are Endemic to the Study Area IV. Distribution Modeling Methods Species Locality Data Environmental Data Deductive PDM V. Vascular Plants Introduction Methods Results Discussion VI. Amphibians Introduction Methods Results Discussion VII. Mammals Introduction Methods Results Discussion VIII. Birds Introduction Methods Results Discussion IX. Synthesis Use of Modeled Distributions Congruence of Areas of Endemism Prospects for Conservation X. Using the Data XI. Acknowledgements XII. Author Addresses XIII. Literature Cited Appendices Appendix 1. Sources of locality data. Appendix 1A: Natural history museums that contributed animal locality data Appendix 1B: Herbaria that contributed plant locality data. Appendix 1C. Literature Sources of Locality Data. Appendix 2. List of focal species included in the study Appendix 3. Reviewers of locality data and draft distribution maps Back Cover

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