Schools of fish, flocks of birds, and swarms of insects are examples of three-dimensional aggregation. Covering both invertebrate and vertebrate species, the authors investigate this pervasive biological phenomenon through a variety of disciplines, from physics to mathematics to biology. The first section is devoted to the various methods, mainly optical and acoustic, used to collect three-dimensional data over time. The second section focuses on analytical methods used to quantify pattern, group kinetics, and interindividual interactions within the group. The section on behavioral ecology and evolution deals with the functions of aggregative behavior from the point of view of an inherently selfish individual member. The final section uses models to elucidate how group dynamics at the individual level creates emergent pattern at the level of the group.
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