Battling Resistance to Antibiotics and Pesticides: An Economic Approach
by Professor Ramanan Laxminarayan
- Publisher: RFF Press
- Number Of Pages: 400
- Publication Date: 2002-12-26
- ISBN-10 / ASIN: 1891853511
- ISBN-13 / EAN: 9781891853517
The increasing resistance of bacteria to antibiotics, and pests to pesticides, threatens to undo some of the most remarkable advances made in public health and agriculture during the past century. Though the potential consequences of increased antibiotic and pesticide resistance are far reaching, regulatory efforts to address the problem are at a very early stage. Battling Resistance to Antibiotics and Pesticides moves discussions forward by presenting cutting edge research and the first comprehensive application of economic tools to analyze how antibiotics and pesticides should be used to maximize their value to society. Laxminarayan and his contributors explore lessons from past experiences with resistance, especially in agriculture. They consider what incentives would be ideal for the individuals who prescribe or apply antibiotics and pesticides, and what would be ideal for the firms engaged in developing and producing these products.
The chapters in this groundbreaking book reflect the fact that efforts to combat resistance will require contributions from a broad range of scholars and professionals, representing a broad range of expertise. The analysis in Battling Resistance demonstrates that, for all these participants, an understanding of economic issues is an essential complement to a knowledge of medical or biological factors.
Table of Contents
About This Book
Introduction: On the Economics of Resistance 1
1 Dynamics of Antibiotic Use: Ecological versus Interventionist Strategies To Manage Resistance to Antibiotics 17
2 Using Antibiotics When Resistance Is Renewable 42
3 Value of Treatment Heterogeneity for Infectious Diseases 63
Commentary: To Take or Not To Take the Antibiotic? 76
Commentary: Same Infection, Same Time, Same Antibiotic? 84
4 Pest Mobility, Market Share, and the Efficacy of Refuge Requirements for Resistance Management 94
Commentary: Need for Direct Collaboration between Economists and Biologists 113
5 The Impact of Resistance on Antibiotic Demand in Patients with Ear Infections 119
Commentary: Measuring the Cost of Resistance 134
6 What Can We Learn from the Economics of Pesticides? Impact Assessment of Genetically Modified Plants 137
Commentary: The Role of Ecosystem Complexity in Genetically Modified Organisms 158
7 Elements of Economic Resistance Management Strategies - Empirical Evidence from Case Studies in Germany 161
Commentary: Can We Justify Resistance Management Strategies for Conventional Pesticides? 180
8 Pesticide Resistance, the Precautionary Principle, and the Regulation of Bt Corn: Real Option and Rational Option Approaches to Decisionmaking 184
9 Resistance Economics of Transgenic Crops under Uncertainty: A Real Option Approach 214
Commentary: Economics of Transgenic Crops and Pest Resistance: An Epidemiological Perspective 238
10 An Economic Model of a Genetic Resistance Commons: Effects of Market Structure Applied to Biotechnology in Agriculture 263
Commentary: Does the Monopolist Care about Resistance? 288
11 The Interaction of Dynamic Problems and Dynamic Policies: Some Economics of Biotechnology 293
12 Industrial Organization and Institutional Considerations in Agricultural Pest Resistance Management 330
Commentary: Strategic Issues in Agricultural Pest Resistance Management 357
About the Editor 377
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