Theriogenology in Camelidae:
Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology, and Artificial Breeding
by Ahmed Tibary (DMV, PhD, DACT) and Abdelhak Anouassi (DMV, PhD)
489 pp, First edition, 1997. ISBN 9981-801-32-1
Table of Contents



  1. Introduction<LI style="LIST-STYLE-TYPE: none">
    • Taxonomy and Evolution
    • The Genuses
    • Camelidae Hybrids
  2. Anatomy of the Male Genital Tract<LI style="LIST-STYLE-TYPE: none">
    • External Genitalia
    • Internal Genitalia
    • Poll Glands in the Dromedary
    • Soft Palate
  3. Reproductive Physiology of the Male<LI style="LIST-STYLE-TYPE: none">
    • Puberty and Sexual Maturity
    • Seasonality
    • Spermatogenesis and Sex Gland Function
    • Mating behavior and Ejaculation
  4. Male Breeding Soundness Examination<LI style="LIST-STYLE-TYPE: none">
    • General Examination
    • Examination of the Genitalia
    • Evaluation of Mating Ability
    • Semen Collection
    • Semen Evaluation
  5. Pathology and Surgery of the Reproductive Tract and Associated Organs in the Male Camelidae<LI style="LIST-STYLE-TYPE: none">
    • Reproductive Disorders
    • Surgery of the Reproductive Tract
  6. Anatomy of the Female Genital Tract<LI style="LIST-STYLE-TYPE: none">
    • Ovary
    • Ovarian Bursa
    • Uterine Tube (Oviduct)
    • Uterus
    • Cervix
    • Vagina and Vestibulum
    • Vulva and Clitoris
    • Vascular Supply to the Genital Tract
    • Mammary Gland
    • Placenta
  7. Reproductive Physiology in the Female Camelidae<LI style="LIST-STYLE-TYPE: none">
    • Puberty
    • Seasonality
    • Estrous Cycle
    • Fertilization and Pregnancy
    • Parturition
    • Postpartum
  8. Breeding Soundness Examination of the Female<LI style="LIST-STYLE-TYPE: none">
    • Restraint Techniques
    • History and General Physical Examination
    • Observation of Sexual Behavior
    • Examination of the Vulva and Perineum
    • Ultrasonography of the Genital Tract
    • Vaginal Examination
    • Vaginal and Uterine Cytology
    • Vaginal Examination
    • Vaginal and Uterine Cytology
    • Uterine Culture
    • Uterine Biopsy
    • Fibroscopy and Laparoscopy
    • Cytogenetics
    • Serology
    • Examination of the Udder
  9. Reproductive Disorders of the Female Camelidae<LI style="LIST-STYLE-TYPE: none">
    • Major manifestations of infertility in the female Camelidae
    • Diseases of the Ovaries and Ovarian Bursa
    • Diseases of the Uterine Tube (Oviduct)
    • Diseases of the Uterus
    • Diseases of the Cervix
    • Diseases of the Vagina and Vulva
    • Genital Diseases in the Pregnant Female
    • Diseases of the Postpartum Period
  10. Surgery of the Reproductive Tract in the Female<LI style="LIST-STYLE-TYPE: none">
    • Cesarean Section
    • Ovariectomy and Ovario-Hysterectomy
    • Special Procedures
  11. Obstetrics and Neonatal Care<LI style="LIST-STYLE-TYPE: none">
    • Normal Parturition
    • Dystocia
    • Neonatal Care
  12. Artificial Breeding and Manipulation of Reproduction in Camelidae<LI style="LIST-STYLE-TYPE: none">
    • Hormonal manipulation of Reproduction
    • Artificial Insemination
    • Multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET)
    • Embryo freezing
    • Assisted reproduction and embryo manipulation
  13. Management of Reproduction in Camelidae

    • Production and Reproduction Evaluation
    • Management to increase herd performance
    • Future management direction